Section 1 Translation
Part 1 English-Chinese Translation (英译汉)
The Travels of Marco Polo was conceived in a prison cell in Genoa, Italy, in 1298. A few years earlier Polo had returned to the West after an epic journey that lasted some 24 years. He then saw action in a naval battle between the Venetian and Genoese fleets, and was captured. It was in jail that he met and befriended Rustichello of Pisa, a well-known writer and collector of Arthurian romances. Their collaboration yielded a book that would give Europe its first authoritative account of the Middle and Far East, in particular China, and reveal the presence of a vast empire and advanced civilization far greater than anything Europeans could achieve or even imagine.
More than 100 copies of that long-lost original exist, many dating from the 14th and 15th centuries. There is no definitive manuscript, however, and all existing versions have been embellished, doctored or censored by the Christian establishment over the years. Modern editions are thus collations and translations of imperfect copies. This murky history helps explain why the book describes what the Venetian could not possibly have seen, and overlooks sights that any traveler to China must have witnessed — like the Great Wall, foot-binding and chopsticks. Skeptics say that Polo never ventured to China and that he and Rustichello used second-hand information from other travelers, especially Arab traders. Certainly, there is no hard historical evidence that Polo actually visited all the places he describes. But most of the detail has since been corroborated by historians and geographers, confounding critics and confirming the importance of the book as the fullest and most accurate account of Asia in its time.
Originally called Description of the World, Travels aims for geographical
completeness, not the immediacy and excitement of personal encounter. It’s not a travelogue. Consistent with the possibility that Polo was not an eyewitness, his book is not “on-the-spot” reporting, and only loosely follows an itinerary. To modern audiences, the book may seem dull and repetitive, to be dipped into, not read cover to cover. Yet Travels was a revolutionary piece of writing. It radically altered European understanding of Asia by forcing the West to recognize a superior culture in the East, and, by describing with such verve the luxuries and sensuousness of Chinese cities, it impressed the idea of an exotic East on the European psyche. The Venetian literally changed the Western view of the world. European maps in his time were based on Biblical interpretations and classical mythology. Jerusalem was at the center. Then came Polo’s book, describing great civilizations in the East, and a world not centered on Jerusalem, politically or geographically. This recasting of the world into a more dynamic and multi-centered geographical space was the first step toward what we now call globalization.
Travels is a book of liberal and enlightened humanism. No one can fail to appreciate its celebration of the heterogeneity of nature, geography and, above all, people. His work expresses wonder and joy in what is unfamiliar. Races are differentiated but not denigrated, and the customs of different cultures are met with enthusiastic curiosity, not the conformism and prejudice prevalent in Europe at the time. Travels had a moral for medieval Europe: let diversity and tolerance replace division and xenophobia — a moral no less relevant today than in Marco Polo’s time.
Part 2 Chinese-English Translation (汉译英)
Translate the following passage into English.
如果按照现行刑事诉讼法规定，贪官一旦外逃又不能及时抓捕归案，诉讼活动只能处于中止状态。我国于2005年签署并加入了《联合国反腐败公约》（UNConvention Against Corruption）。该公约是第一个全球性反腐败法律文件，资产追回机制是其一大建树。
Section 2 Finalizing Translated Texts
Part 1 English-Chinese Translation (英译汉审定稿)
Read the following original English text. There are 10 mistakes in the Chinese-translated text. Underline and number them and give your corrections in the numbered spaces on the ANSWER SHEET.
“Whisky is for drinking, water is for fighting over,” Mark Twain once said. At the start of the 21st century, his gloomy view on the water side of the equation has been getting endorsements from an impressive — if unlikely — cast of characters. The Central Intelligence Agency, the accountancy firm PricewaterhouseCoopers and, most recently, Britain’s Ministry of Defense have all raised the specter of future “water wars.” With water availability shrinking across the Middle East, Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, so the argument runs, violent conflict between states is increasingly likely.
The specter is also on the agenda for the experts from 140 countries gathered this week at the annual World Water Week forum in Stockholm. Meetings of water experts are not obvious forums for debating issues of global peace and security. But the ghost of Mark Twain is in Stockholm this week as we reflect on the links between water scarcity and violent conflict between states. So, here’s the question. Are we heading for an era of “hydrological warfare” in which rivers, lakes and aquifers become national security assets to be fought over？ Or can water act as a force for peace and cooperation?
Water conflicts are invariably shaped by local factors. But the sheer scale of these conflicts makes it impossible to dismiss them as isolated events. What we are dealing with is a global crisis generated by decades of gross mismanagement of water resources. The facts behind the crisis tell their own story. By 2025, more than two billion people are expected to live in countries that find it difficult or impossible to mobilize the water resources needed to meet the needs of agriculture, industry and households. Population growth, urbanization and the rapid development of manufacturing industries are relentlessly increasing demand for finite water resources. The threats posed by competition for water are real enough — but for every threat there is an opportunity. Cooperation tends to attract less news than violent conflict. Perhaps that is why “water wars” get such exaggerated coverage. Yet cooperation over water is far more widespread than conflict.
How can the world move toward a future of cooperation rather than conflict on water? We believe that there are three broad rules. First, governments have to stop treating water as an infinitely available resource to be exploited without reference to ecological sustainability. Yes, water is scarce in many countries. But the scarcity is the product of poor economic policies. Improving the efficiency of water use and encouraging conservation through pricing and more efficient technologies in agriculture and industry would help reduce scarcity. Second, countries must avoid unilateralism. Any major upstream alteration to a river system, or increase in use of shared groundwater, should be negotiated, not imposed. Governments should look beyond national borders to basin-wide cooperation. Building strong river-basin institutions could provide a framework for identifying and exploiting opportunities for cooperation. Third, political leaders need to get involved. Too often, dialogue on transboundary water management is dominated by technical experts. Whatever their level of expertise, dedication and professionalism, the absence of political leadership tends to limit the scope for far-reaching cooperation.
The most obvious reason for greater political and financial investment in transboundary water cooperation is spelled out in an unlikely source. “By means of water,” says the Koran, “we give life to everything.” As a single human community sharing a single planet, we need to look beyond our national borders to work out ways of sustaining the ecological systems on which human progress depends. By means of water, perhaps we can display a capacity for resolving problems and sustaining through cooperation.
马克·吐温说过，“威士忌是供饮用的，水是用来抢夺的。”他对水所持的悲观看法，到了 21 世纪初，却受到一批如不可能却引人注目的人物的赞同。美国中央情报局、普华永道会计师事务所，以及最近英国国防部，都谈到将来“为水而战”的可怕景象。根据他们的说法，由于中东、亚洲以及非洲小撒哈拉地区可用水量日渐减少，国家间发生暴力冲突的可能性日益增大。
本周有 140 个国家的专家云集斯德哥尔摩，举行世界水周论坛年会。上述可怕景象也反映在年会的议程上。水专家的会议显然不是讨论世界和平与安全问题的论坛。然而，马克·吐温的幽灵本周来到了斯德哥尔摩，因为我们要反映水荒和国家间的暴力冲突的关系。这样问题就来了。难道说我们正走向“为水而战”的时代，河流、湖泊和地下蓄水层都成为需要争夺的国家安全资产？还是说水可以成为一支和平与合作的力量？
关于水的冲突总是由局部地区的多种因素引发的。但看一看这些冲突的纯粹规模，让人不能把它们看作是孤立的事件，而不予重视。我们当前面对的是一场全球性危机，这种危机是几十年来对水资源管理不当而造成的。危机背后的事实最能说明问题。预计到 2025 年，在两亿多人生活的那些国家将无法或难以开发足够的水资源，以满足农业、工业和生活用水的需求。人口增长、城市化、制造业的迅猛发展都对有限的水资源毫不留情地提出越来越大的需求。争水的威胁确实存在，但每个威胁都会带来一个机遇。合作往往比暴力冲突吸引更少的新闻报导。也许正是因为这个原因，“为水而战”才受到那样言过其实的报道。然而，在水的问题上进行的合作要比它引起的冲突更为广泛。
Part 2 Chinese-English Translation (汉译英审定稿)
Read the following original Chinese text. There are 10 mistakes in the English translated text. Underline and number them and give your corrections in the numbered spaces on the ANSWER SHEET.
Since the end of 2002, driven by growing domestic demand, China kept increasing investment in industries featured high input, high energy consumption and heavy pollution. Given the country’s current industrial structure, a 1.3-percentage-point drop of energy consumption per 10,000 yuan of the GDP can be realized provided that the proportion of added value of hi-tech industries grow by 1 percentage point and that of high energy-consuming sectors like metallurgical and chemical industries falls by 1 percentage point.
Some experts predicted that China would see more distinct results in energy conservation with the strengthening of technological renovation of high energy-consuming enterprises and the quickened pace of industrial restructuring.
However, some people warned that the acceleration of China’s industrialization and urbanization would further increase the pressure on energy supply in urban areas.
Per-capita housing in China’s urban areas is expected to surge nearly 30 percent to 26 square meters in the next five years and that in rural areas will grow 20 percent to 30 square meters. Air-conditioners owned by every 100 urban households will increase 1.6 times to 81 sets and cars owned by every 100 urban households will rise 6.7 times to 3.4 units. This will lead to a robust jump of high energy-consuming products, such as cement, steel, glass and others.
Moreover, China’s coal consumption may approach to 1 billion tons during the next five years, according to China’s current demand for energy, even if the government closes down or eliminates backward productivity and intensifies energy saving of high energy-consuming enterprises. All posing a great challenge to China in its effort to meet the goal of cutting its energy consumption by 20 percent.
Return to print allays bookseller fears of digital apocalypse
Five years ago, the book world was seized by collective panic over the uncertain future of print.
As readers migrated to new digital devices, e-book sales soared, increasing 1,259 per cent between 2008 and 2010, alarming booksellers that watched consumers use their stores to find titles they would later buy online. Print sales dwindled, bookstores struggled to stay open, and publishers and authors feared that cheaper e-books would cannibalise their business.
Then in 2011, the industry"s fears were realised when Borders declared bankruptcy.
"E-books were this rocket ship going straight up," said Len Vlahos, a former executive director of the Book Industry Study Group, a nonprofit research group that tracks the publishing industry. "Just about everybody you talked to thought we were going the way of digital music."
But the digital apocalypse never arrived, or at least not on schedule. While analysts once predicted that e-books would overtake print by 2015, digital sales have instead slowed sharply.
Now, there are signs that some e-book adopters are returning to print or becoming hybrid readers who toggle between devices and paper. E-book sales fell by 10 per cent in the first five months of this year, according to the Association of American Publishers, which collects data from nearly 1,200 publishers. Digital books accounted last year for around 20 per cent of the market, roughly the same as a few years ago.
E-books" declining popularity may signal that publishing, while not immune to technological upheaval, will weather the tidal wave of digital technology better than other forms of media, like music and television.
E-book subscription services, modelled on companies like Netflix and Pandora, have struggled to convert book lovers into digital binge readers, and some have shut down. Sales of dedicated e-reading devices have plunged as consumers migrated to tablets and smartphones. And according to some surveys, young readers who are digital natives still prefer reading on paper.
The surprising resilience of print has provided a lift to many booksellers. Independent bookstores, which were battered by the recession and competition from Amazon, are showing strong signs of resurgence. The American Booksellers Association counted 1,712 members with stores in 2,227 locations in 2015, up from 1,410 members with 1,660 locations five years ago.
"The fact that the digital side of the business has levelled off has worked to our advantage," said Oren Teicher, chief executive of the American Booksellers Association. "It"s resulted in a far healthier independent bookstore market today than we have had in a long time."
Publishers, seeking to capitalise on the shift, are pouring money into their print infrastructures and distribution. Hachette added 20,000 square metres to its Indiana warehouse late last year, and Simon & Schuster is expanding its New Jersey distribution facility by 18,000 square metres.
Penguin Random House has invested nearly $US100 million in expanding and updating its warehouses and speeding up distribution of its books. It added 34,000 square metres last year to its warehouse in Crawfordsville, Indiana, more than doubling the size of the warehouse.
"People talked about the demise of physical books as if it was only a matter of time, but even 50 to 100 years from now, print will be a big chunk of our business," said Markus Dohle, the chief executive of Penguin Random House, which has nearly 250 imprints globally. Print books account for more than 70 per cent of the company"s sales in the United States.
The company began offering independent booksellers in 2011 two-day guaranteed delivery from November to January, the peak book buying months. Other big publishers, including HarperCollins, have followed suit. The faster deliveries have allowed bookstores to place smaller initial orders and restock as needed, which has reduced returns of unsold books by about 10 per cent.
Penguin Random House has also developed a data-driven approach to managing print inventory for some of its largest customers, a strategy modeled on the way manufacturers like Procter & Gamble automatically restock soap and other household goods. The company now tracks more than 10 million sales records a day and sifts through them in order to make recommendations for how many copies of a given title a vendor should order based on previous sales.
"It"s a very simple thing; only books that are on the shelves can be sold," Dohle said.
At BookPeople, a bookstore founded in 1970 in Austin, Texas, sales are up nearly 11 per cent this year over last, making 2015 the store"s most profitable year ever, said Steve Bercu, the co-owner. He credits the growth of his business, in part, to the stabilisation of print and new practices in the publishing industry, such as Penguin Random House"s so-called rapid replenishment program to restock books quickly.
"The e-book terror has kind of subsided," he said.
Other independent booksellers agree that they are witnessing a reverse migration to print.
"We"ve seen people coming back," said Arsen Kashkashian, a book buyer at Boulder Book Store in Boulder, Colorado. "They were reading more on their Kindle and now they"re not, or they"re reading both ways."
Digital books have been around for decades, ever since publishers began experimenting with CD-ROMs, but they did not catch on with consumers until 2008, shortly after Amazon released the Kindle.
The Kindle, which was joined by other devices like Kobo"s e-reader, the Nook from Barnes & Noble and the iPad, drew millions of book buyers to e-readers, which offered seamless, instant purchases. Publishers saw huge spikes in digital sales during and after the holidays, after people received e-readers as gifts.
But those double- and triple-digit growth rates plummeted as e-reading devices fell out of fashion with consumers, replaced by smartphones and tablets. Some 12 million e-readers were sold last year, a steep drop from the nearly 20 million sold in 2011, according to Forrester Research. The portion of people who read books primarily on e-readers fell to 32 per cent in the first quarter of 2015, from 50 per cent in 2012, a Nielsen survey showed.
Higher e-book prices may also be driving readers back to paper.
As publishers renegotiated new terms with Amazon in the past year and demanded the ability to set their own e-book prices, many have started charging more. With little difference in price between a $US12.99 e-book and a paperback, some consumers may be opting for the print version.
On Amazon, the paperback editions of some popular titles, like The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt and All the Light We Cannot See by Anthony Doerr, are several dollars cheaper than their digital counterparts. Paperback sales rose by 8.4 per cent in the first five months of this year, the Association of American Publishers reported.
Some publishing executives say the world is changing too quickly to declare that the digital tide is waning.
"Maybe it"s just a pause here," said Carolyn Reidy, the president and chief executive of Simon & Schuster. "Will the next generation want to read books on their smartphones, and will we see another burst come?"
1. 错误：foreign and peaceful policy
改正：foreign policy of peace
3. 错误：sharing interests
4. 错误：the way in development
改正：the way to development
5. 错误： one another
6. 错误：attempt practical and efficient results
改正：achieve practical and efficient results
7. 错误：Chinese and African Peoples
改正：Chinese and African people
8. 错误：policy integration
9. 错误：in a proper manner
改正：in an appropriate manner
10. 错误：strategic and long-term goals
改正：strategic and long-term perspectives
Enhancing solidarity and cooperation with African countries has always been the cornerstone of China"s independent foreign policy of peace（原文 foreign and peaceful policy）, as well as China"s firm and longstanding strategic choice. Under the new circumstances, China will adhere（原文 adheres） to the principles of its Africa policy-- sincerity, practical results, affinity and good faith, uphold the values of friendship, justice and shared interests（原文 sharing interests）, and push for new leapfrog growth of its friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation with Africa.（三处错误）
2“真”，即平等互信、团结互助，永远做非洲的最可靠朋友和真诚伙伴。中国尊重非洲国家自主选择发展道路，尊重非洲国家推动经济社会发展、改善人民生活的实践和努力，愿在平等自愿基础上同非洲开展治国理政经验交流，促进双方对彼此政治制度和发展道路的了解、认同和借鉴。"Sincerity" means China insists on（原文好像没有 on我记忆中有） the principles of equality, mutual trust, solidarity and mutual support, and will always be Africa"s most trustworthy friend and sincere partner. China respects African countries" independent choice of the way to（原文 in） development as well as their practices and efforts to promote economic and social development and improve people"s living standard. It stands ready to exchange governance experience with African countries on the basis of equality and voluntarism, and promote mutual understanding and acceptance of and learning from each other"s（原文 one another"s, each other两者之间互相，one another三者之间互相，我当时想了想觉得中国和非洲国家，非洲国家不止一个，所以是三者之间，就没改这点，但是现在看来是应该改的。） political system and development path.（两处错误）
3“实”，即务实高效、合作共赢，秉持言必信、行必果的理念，不折不扣落实对非互利合作方针和举措，在支持非洲实现自主发展的过程中实现中非共同发展。"Practical results" means that China aims to achieve（原文 attempt）practical and efficient results, seeks cooperation and mutual benefits, upholds the principle of honoring commitments with real actions and results, implements the guidelines and measures for mutually（原文 mutual我记忆中原文就是Mutually）beneficial cooperation with Africa to the letter, and strives to realize the common development of China and Africa while helping Africa achieve independent development.（两处错误）
"Affinity" means the hearts of Chinese and African people（原文Peoples） are connected, and they will live together in harmony, promote inter-cultural（原文 cultural这里记不得了，我只记得当时自己改了dialogues哭） dialogue, and enhance exchanges of ideas, policy alignment（原文 integration，当时还专门查了integration，完全没想到要改，哭+2） and mutual understanding to provide a solid popular and social basis for China-Africa friendship.（两处错误）
"Good faith" means China cherishes good faith and settlement of problems in an appropriate（原文 proper，应该不算错吧。个人觉得应该算错，同义词辨析啊。） manner. It views and promotes China-Africa relations from strategic and long-term perspectives（原文goals）, and seeks joint efforts with Africa to create a good environment for friendly and mutually beneficial cooperation. （一处错误）
Aided by the Sea, Israel Overcomes an Old Foe: Drought
With its part-Mediterranean, part-desert climate, Israel had suffered from chronic shortages and exploitation of its natural water resources for decades. 原文翻译：几十年深受水资源匮乏和费力开发自然水资源之苦。
The natural fresh water at Israel’s disposal in an average year does not cover its total use of roughly 525 billion gallons. The demand for potable water is projected to rise to 515 billion gallons by 2030, from 317 billion gallons this year.
The turnaround came with a seven-year drought, one of the most severe to hit modern Israel, that began in 2005 and peaked in the winter of 2008 to 2009. The country’s main natural water sources — the Sea of Galilee in the north and the mountain and coastal aquifers — were severely depleted, threatening a potentially irreversible deterioration of the water quality. 原文翻译2008年的冬季。我增加了2008年年末至2009年的冬季。
Measures to increase the supply and reduce the demand were accelerated, overseen by the Water Authority, a powerful inter ministerial agency established in 2007.
Desalination emerged as one focus of the government’s efforts, with four major plants going into operation over the past decade. A fifth one should be ready to operate with in months. Together, they will produce a total of more than 130 billion gallons of potable water a year, with a goal of 200 billion gallons by 2020.
Israel has, in the meantime, become the world leader in recycling and reusing wastewater for agriculture. It treats 86percent of its domestic wastewater and recycles it for agricultural use— about 55 percent of the total water used for agriculture. 翻译原文68%（此段一处错误）Spain is second to Israel, recycling 17 percent of its effluent, while the United States recycles just 1 percent, according to Water Authority data.
The Israeli government began by making huge cuts in the annual water quotas for farmers, ending decades of extravagant overuse of heavily subsidized water for agriculture.
The tax for surplus household use was dropped at the end of 2009 and a two-tiered tariff system was introduced. Regular household water use is now subsidized by a slightly higher rate paid by those who consume more than the basic allotment.原文翻译：一般家庭用水由稍高进行补贴，由超配额……记不住原文了，觉得不对，改了的
Water Authority representatives went house to house offering to fit free devices on showerheads and taps that inject air into the water stream, saving about a third of the water used while still giving the impression of a strong flow. 原文翻译：自由装置 应为 免费
Officials say that wiser use of water has led to a reduction in household consumption of up to 18 percent in recent years.
And instead of the municipal authorities being responsible for the maintenance of city pipe networks, local corporations have been formed. The money collected for water is reinvested in the infrastructure. 原文翻译：专业公司，local，当地公司没有翻出来，
Mekorot, the national water company, built the national water carrier 50 years ago, a system for transporting water from the Sea of Galilee in the north through the heavily populated center to the arid south. Now it is building new infrastructure to carry water west to east, from the Mediterranean coast inland. 原文翻译：东水西送
Desalination, long shunned by many as a costly energy-guzzler with a heavy carbon footprint, is becoming cheaper, cleaner and more energy efficient as technologies advance.
The Sorek desalination plant rises out of the sandy ground about nine miles south of Tel Aviv. Said to be the largest plant of its kind in the world, it produces 40billion gallons of potable water a year, enough for about a sixth of Israel’s roughly eight million citizens. 原文翻译：九公里
Miriam Faigon, the director of the solutions department at IDE Technologies, the Israeli company that built three of the plants along the Mediterranean, said that the company had cut energy levels and costs with new technologies and a variety of practical methods.