零基础英语 2020-09-22 12:05:42 零基础英语
[摘要]Unit 1economic globalization(经济全球化)barter system(物物交换):exchange without moneyglobal village(地球村):the[db:cate]


Unit 1

economic globalization(经济全球化)
barter system(物物交换):exchange without money
global village(地球村):the world form one community
melting pot(大熔炉)
culture(文化):shared interpretations
cultural diversity(文化融合):mix of cultures
communication(交际):share with or to make common
intercultural communication(跨文化交际):communication between people whose cultural backgrounds and distinct(不同) enough to alter(改变) their communication

components of communication(交际的十大要素)
source(来源):the person who desires to 
encoding(编码):the process of putting on idea into a symbol
message(信息):identifies the encoding thought
channel(渠道):the means of transmission(传播途径)
noise(干扰):anything distorts the messages
receiver(接受者):the person who attends to the message
decoding(解码):assigning meaning to the symbols received
receiver response(接受者反应):anything the receiver does
feedback(反馈):the portion which the source has knowledge and to which the source attends and assigns meaning
context(场景):help define(使明确) the communication

1.Discuss the four trends that make our world more interdependent.
(1)convenient transportation systems(便捷的交通系统) 
(2)innovative communication systems(革新通信技术)
(3)economic globalization(经济全球化)
(4)widespread migrations(广泛的移民)
2.What are the three ingredients(组成) of culture?
(1)artifacts(the material and spiritual products people produce)
(2)behavior(what they do)
(3)concepts(共有观点)(what they think)
3.How to understand cultural iceberg?



just as an iceberg,culture has some aspects that are observable and others that can only be suspected an imagined.Also like an iceberg,nine-tenth of culture is below the surface.
4.What are the characteristic(特点) of culture?
(2)learned(enculturation 文化习得:learning one"s culture) 
(3)dynamic(动态的)(accultration文化适应:adopts the changes brought about by another culture)
(4)ethnocentric(ethnocentrism文化中心主义:own cultural background is superior)
5.What are the characteristic of communication?

Unit 2-4

Pragmatics:the study of the effect of language 语用学
Semantics:the study of the meaning of words 语义学
Denotation:the literal meaning 引申含义


1.How is Chinese addressing different from American addressing?
In Chinese the surname comes first and is followed by the given name,but in English this order is reversed.
In China seniority(资历)is paid respects to.
Nowadays,many English-speaking people tend to address others by their given names,even when meeting for the first time.
(About addressing by relationshipChinese often exten kinship terms to people not related by blood or marriage.
Americans tend to use just the first name and leave out the term of relationship.
Chinese use a person"s title,office,or profession to indicate(表明) the person"s influential(有权势的)status.In English,only a few occupations or titles could be used.(p24)
2.What are the social functions of compliments?
Creating or reinforcing(加固) solidarity,greeting people,expressing thanks or congratulations,encouraging people,softening criticism(委婉批评),starting a conversation,or even overcoming embarrassment(窘迫).

Unit 5

Chronemics:The study of how people perceive and use time.时间学
(1)Monochronic Time:paying attention to and doing only one thing at a time.
(2)Polychronic Time:being involved with many things at once.
Proxemics:the perception and use of space.空间学
Kinetics:the study of body language.身势学
Paralanguage:involving sounds but not words and lying between verbal and nonverbal communication.


1.What are the different features of M-Time and P-time?
M-Time think time is perceived as a linear strucure.认为时间是线性的
P-Time is less rigid(刻板) and clock-bound,more flexible and more human-centered.
2.Discover the meaning of some common gestures in English


good luckfeel surprisedI don"t knowPardon!Can"t hearThat"s enough,Please overthamb-dowmSth strange/oddCome herein the U.S.,meaning"OK"in Italy,meaning"Hero".in U.S.,"goodbye"Oh,I forgotSlow down/Relax/Wait a second.

 Unit 6


What has influenced the gender socialization?
There are two primary influences on gender socialization:family communication,particularly between mothers and children,and recreational interaction among children.

Unit 7


思考题:Discuss the concepts of high context culture and low contexgt culture.(讨论高、低语境)
Eastern culture favors verbal hesitance and ambiguity in order to avoid disturbing or offending others,the vurden of smooth communication effective is shared equally between all parties involved.
The Western communicative mode is primarily(直接) direct,explicit(明确),and verbal,relying heavily on logical and rational perception(感知),thinkingandarticulation.So the task of communicating effectively lies primarily on the speaker.

Unit 9

A planetary culture:integrates Eastern mysticism with Western science and rationalism(理性主义).
Intercultural person:represents someone whose cognitive(认知的),affective,and behavioral(行为的)characteristics are open to growth beyond the psychological parameters(心理界限)of his or her own culture.

"I"culture(个体主义):1.Freedom to control their won destiny 2.Self-reliance to stand on their own feet 3.Privacy to mind their own business 4.Family ties tend to be relatively unimportant
"We"culture(集体主义):1.Harmony to strive for the common good 2.Competition is not encouraged 3.Limit rights to property 4.Filial piety(孝顺) 5.Inter-dependant

Power distance(权利差距):describes the distrivution(分布) of influence within the culture,the extent to which the less powerful members of organzations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.Cultures are classified on a continoum(延续体)of high to low distance,that is hierarchy(等级主义) v.s. egalitarian(平等主义).

Masculine cultures(刚性文化):These cultures place high values on maculine traits and stress assertiveness,competition and material success.
Feminine cultures(柔性文化):These cultures place high values on feminne traits and stress quality of life,interpersonal relationships and concern for the weak.


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