考研英语语法看谁的|考研英语语法大全———自己总结


考研英语 2020-09-23 18:06:51 考研英语
[摘要]考研英语十二大基础语法体系对于任何英语句子,要分析其结构,这样才能找到英语语言的规律。 每种语言都有它的难点,汉语的难点在于汉语不是拼读语言,汉字很难写,而且有四种声调。其实,许多接触过多种外语的人都[db:cate]

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考研英语十二大基础语法体系

对于任何英语句子,要分析其结构,这样才能找到英语语言的规律。 每种语言都有它的难点,汉语的难点在于汉语不是拼读语言,汉字很难写,而且有四种声调。其实,许多接触过多种外语的人都认为,英语的语法比法语、德语、俄语、日语等都简单,是最容易学的。著名语言学家乔姆斯基说过,语法是内生的、也就是随着语言的诞生而诞生的。因此,学习语法和学习语言是相辅相成的。

一、 英语动词的时态

(一)英汉两种语言在时态表达方式上的差异:

英语的词类与汉语的不同。汉语词类形态稳定,比如“书”这个字,“一本书”、“三本书”都一样,没有词形变化。英语就不同了,book, books仅从词形上就能知道是单数还是复数。

动词是英语中变化最多、最复杂的词类。有人说,学好英语就是学好动词,此言甚是。同一个动作或状态分别在不同时间发生或存在,表达这个动作或状态的动词就要用不同的形式,这就是时态。

(二)英语动词的形式:

英语的时态是通过动词的变化来体现的。因此,了解动词的形式及其变化规律非常重要。英语的实义动词有以下五种形式:

(1) 动词原形:动词原形在句子中形式不变。主要用于主语为非第三人称单数的一般现在时,情态动词之后,或根据语法规定必须用动词原形的其他情况。

(2) 一般现在时第三人称单数形式(简称现单三):主要用于主语为第三人称单数的一般现在时。

(3) 过去式:主要用于一般过去时。

(4) 现在分词:主要用于进行时态,或语法规定的其他情况。

(5) 过去分词:主要用于完成时态,或语法规定的其他情况。

动词一般现在时第三人称单数(现单三)的构成,见下表:

与名词变复数形式相同,读音也相同。

动词过去式和过去分词,大多数是动词原形+ ed 构成,这是规则动词。规则动词的拼写和读音规则如下表:

不规则动词的过去式和过去分词有其特殊变化形式,需要个别记忆,同时也要善于发现不规则中的规则,即某些字母组合的不规则动词有一定的规律。如:weepwept, sleepslept, sweepswept

现在分词一律由动词原形加-ing构成,规则如下表:

为了学习的方便,人们把时间分为四个阶段:“现在、过去、将来、过去将来”。英语动词所表示的动作在以上每个时间段中分别有四种状态:一般、进行、完成和完成进行。因此我们便有了四四一十六个时态。

不同的时态有不同的变化形式。以do 为例,列表如下:

“时态”就是通过动词的形态变化,来表达动作发生的时间(现在、过去、将来、过去将来)及所处的状态(一般、进行、完成、完成进行)。

比如在“They are doing their exercises.”这个句子中,动词由原形do 变成are doing 的形态,说明这个事情是发生在现在、并处于正在进行的状态当中,所以叫现在进行时;

在“They have done their exercises.”这句中,动词由原形do 变成have done的形态,说明这个事情是发生在现在、并处于完成的状态,所以叫现在完成时;

在“They always do their exercises.”中,动词用原形do 的形态,说明这个事情是发生在现在、并且是一般情况下永远如此,所以叫一般现在时。

在这三句话中,动词do 虽然用了不同的形态,其意义没有变化,而是事情发生的时间和状态变了。其余类推。

(三)时态详解

16个时态中,常用的有12个:一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、过去将来时、现在进行时、过去进行时、将来进行时、现在完成时、过去完成时、将来完成时、现在完成进行时和过去完成进行时。其他时态很少单独使用。

下面把各种时态的构成和用法做一个全面的介绍。

1、一般现在时

通常以动词原形表示。主语为第三人称单数时,用现单三形式。

动词behave(表示“拥有”)各人称的单数形式为:

一般现在时的否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:

动词be have(表示“拥有”):否定式直接把not放在动词之后,疑问式直接把动词放在主语之前,见下表:

动词be 的否定疑问式和简单回答:

动词be have(表示“拥有”):否定式直接把not放在动词之后,疑问式直接把动词放在主语之前,见下表:

动词have(表示“拥有”) 的否定疑问式和简单回答:

注意:have 作为行为动词则只能按照行为动词的规则变化。

行为动词(以study为例)一般现在时的否定式、疑问式和简单回答(注意要加助动词do/does

2、现在进行时

由助动词be 现在分词构成。其中be有人称和数的变化,有三种形式:第一人称单数用am, 第三人称单数用is, 其他用are

现在进行时的否定式是:直接在助动词be后面加上not;疑问式是:把助动词be提到主语之前。以study 为例:

5、一般过去时

一般过去时通常由动词过去式表示。一般过去时的否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式要用助动词do 的过去式did, 同时注意实义动词要用原形。以study 为例,其否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:

6、过去进行时

由助动词be 的过去式 现在分词构成。其中be有人称和数的变化,第一、第三人称单数用was,其他用were.

1)过去进行时动词主要表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行或持续进行的动作。过去进行时经常与过去时配合使用。例如:

This time yesterday, we were having an English lesson. 昨天这个时候,我们正在上英语课。

The teacher was giving us a lesson when Tom walked into the room.  老师在给我们上课时,汤姆走进教室。

While we were having supper, all the lights went out. 我们吃饭的时候,灯灭了。

He was reading while she was setting the table. 她摆桌子时,他在读书。

It was getting dark. The wind was rising. 天渐渐黑下来了。风势增强了。

2)过去进行时动词常用always, continually, frequently 等词连用,表示过去经常发生的行为。这种用法表明带有的感情色彩。例如:

The two brothers were frequently quarreling when they were young. 两兄弟小时候常吵架。

In Qing Dynasty, China was always making concessions to western powers. 清朝时,中国总是对西方列强妥协。

7、过去完成时

一律用had + 过去分词构成。

用法:

1)表示发生在过去某一时间或动作之前的事情,即“过去的过去”。用过去完成时,必须有一个过去的时间或动作来作参照,说明在此之前某事已发生。如果两个动作都是在过去发生的,先发生的用过去完成时,后发生的用一般过去时。例如:

She told me she had been there three times before. 她告诉我她以前到过那里三次。(“去过”发生在“告诉”之前)

How long had he taught here by the end of last term? 到上学期末为止,他在这里教学多长时间啦? (“教学”发生在上学期末结束之前)

When we arrived, the football match had already begun. 我们到的时候,足球赛已经开始了。

She had visited China twice before she came this year. 她今年来中国之前已访问过中国两次了。

2)过去完成时动词可以表示过去某一时刻之前发生的动作或呈现的状态,这一动作一直持续到过去这一时刻或将继续下去。例如:

By the middle of last month, I had lived in Beijing for five years. 到上月中旬,我已在北京住了五年了。

By six oclock they had worked for eight hours. 到六点为止,他们已工作八小时了。

When I came to Shanghai, he had been there for a long time. 我到上海时,他在那里很长时间了。

3)过去完成时动词常用于间接引语和虚拟语气,我们以后会详细讲述。

4)此外,过去完成时常用于 no soonerthan hardly(scarcely) when 这两个句型,前面部分用过去完成时,后面部分用一般过去时。例如:

No sooner had he stolen the purse than he was caught red-handed. = He had no sooner stolen the purse than he was caught red-handed. 他刚偷到钱包就被当场抓获。

Saddam had hardly realized what was happening when he was captured. = Hardly had Saddam realized what was happening when he was captured. 萨达姆还没有意识到在发生什么事情就被抓获了。

8、过去完成进行时

had been + 动词的现在分词。

用法:表示一直持续到过去某个时间的行为动作,此行为动作或刚结束、或还没结束(可以从上下文看出)。这一时态经常与一般过去时一起使用。例如:

When he came in, I had been trying to repair the TV for a couple of hours. 他进来的时候,我一直在努力修理电视机好几个小时了

The roads were dangerous. It had been raining for two whole days. 道路很危险。雨一直下了两整天。

They were tired because they had been digging since dawn. 他们累了,因为从天亮开始他们就一直在挖。

The boy was delighted with the new mountain bike. He had been hoping for one for a long time. 那男孩得到一辆新山地自行车很高兴。很长时间来他一直希望有一辆。

9、一般将来时

一般将来时动词表示将来发生的动作或情况。主要有以下几种表现形式:

1shall/will + 动词原形

表示单纯的将来,不涉及主语的主观意愿。第一人称I, weshall will,其余用will. 其否定式、疑问式和简单回答形式如下:

例如:

I shall be twenty years old next year. 我明年二十岁。

The sky is black. I think it will rain. 天黑下来了。我想可能会下雨。

You will meet him at the station this afternoon. 你下午会在车站碰到他。

The train will arrive soon. 火车快要到了。

When shall we see you next time? 我们下次什么时候能看见你呢?

He probably wont go with us. 他大概不能和我们一起去。

注意:

1shall, will的缩写形式为’ll, Ill, youll, hell shell等。

2will 用于第一人称时,可以表示将来的意愿、决心、允诺、命令等;shall用于第二、三人称时,可以表示说话人的将来的意愿。例如:

I will give you a new pen for your birthday. 我将送你一支新钢笔作为生日礼物。(允诺)

I will take the college entrance examination. 我将参加大学入学考试。(决心)

Shall I open the window?  我打开窗户好吗?(征求允诺)

You shall have the book as soon as I get it. 我一拿到书就给你。(说话人的允诺)

The enemy shall not pass.  决不让敌人通过。(说话人的保证)

I will do my best to help you.  我愿意尽力帮助你。(意愿)

Nobody shall be late for the meeting. 任何人开会都不能迟到。(说话人的命令)

2be going + 动词不定式

1)这种结构表示主体现在打算在最近或将来要做某事。这种打算往往是事先考虑好的。例如:

My brother is going to learn English next year.  我哥哥准备明年学英语。

I am going to meet Tom at the station at six. 我六点钟要到火车站去接汤姆。

She is not going to be there.  她不会到那儿去的。

When are you going to finish your work?  你的工作什么时候做完?

He is going to stay a week.  他准备呆一星期。

We are going to call a meeting to discuss it. 我们准备开个会来讨论一下。

2)这种结构还可以表示说话人根据已有的迹象认为非常可能即将发生某事。例如:

Look at these black cloudsit is going to rain. 看这些乌云?要下雨了。

I think it is going to snow. 我看要下雪。

I am afraid I am going to have a bad cold. 恐怕我要得重感冒。

10、将来进行时

shall/will be + 现在分词

用法:将来进行时动词表示在将来某一段时间内将会发生的动作。

This time next week we shall be working in that factory. 下星期这时候,我们将在那个工厂劳动。

When I get up tomorrow morning, my mother will be getting breakfast for me. 当我明天早晨起床时,我妈妈将在为我准备早饭。

I will be seeing him next month.  我下个月将要见他。

Tomorrow we will be going to the village fair.    我们明天去赶集。

We will be taking our holiday at the seaside in July.  七月份我们要去海边度假。

一般将来时与将来进行时都表示将来,那么如何区别一般将来时和将来进行时呢?将来进行时不表示个人意愿,强调主观上感觉某事即将发生,并对这一事情有着期待,感情色彩较浓,强调动作。一般将来时主要是对某一事情即将发生做一个事实性的说明或陈述,强调事实或意愿。

11、过去将来时

1)由should/would + 动词原形构成。第一人称用should; 第二、三人称用would。美国英语所有人称一律用would. should/would 的简略形式为’d, Id, youd; would not should not的简略形式分别为wouldnt shouldnt.

2)过去将来时表示从过去某时间看将要发生的事情,多用在宾语从句中。还可以表示过去的倾向或过去经常发生的事情。如:

They asked me if I would go to Guangzhou soon. 他们问我是否很快要去广州。

She told me she would come again next week. 她和我说她下周还来。

I told him to leave immediately, but he wouldnt. 我告诉他马上离开,但他不。

Hed play the violin when he was in low spirits. 他情绪低落的时候,就拉小提琴。

When I was in college, I would find a part-time job during the summer holidays every year to earn my tuition. 我上大学的时候,每年暑假都找份临时工挣学费。

3)其他表示过去将来时的结构:

12、将来完成时

shall/will + have + 过去分词

用法:将来完成时动词主要表示在将来的某一时刻或将来的某一时刻之前完成的动作,这一动作也可能继续进行。例如:

By seven oclock this afternoon we shall have got to Shanghai if the train keeps good line. 如果火车运行正常,我们今天下午七点就到上海了。

Before bedtime Xiao Ming will have completed his work. 到上床睡觉的时候,小明会做完他的工作(或作业)。

By February next year this foreign expert will have been here on this job for five years. 到明年二月,这个外国专家在这儿做这项工作就满五年了。

By Sept. 2008 Beijing will have held/hosted the Olympic Games. 20089月,北京将举行完了奥运会。

二、被动语态

(一)简介

在英语中,语态是动词的一种形式,表示主语和谓语的关系。英语动词有两种语态,即主动语态和被动语态。主动语态(active voice) 表示主语是动作的执行者;被动语态(passive voice)表示主语是动作的承受者。如:

Saddam is being tried.  萨达姆正在接受审判。

The Iraqi government is trying Saddam. 伊拉克政府正在审判萨达姆。

More and more people use computers now.(主动语态)

Computers are more and more widely used now.(被动语态)

English is spoken all over the world. (被动语态)

(二)英汉两种语言在表达被动方式上的差异

汉语表达被动语态非常简单明了,用“被”“遭”“受”等词来表示,如“被捕”、“被杀”、“受到凌辱”等。而英语表达被动的方式也不复杂,用“助动词be+动词的过去分词”表示。其中助动词be有人称、数量和时态的变化,而这正是英语被动语态的难点。

(三)被动语态的构成

被动语态由“be+及物动词的过去分词”构成。这里要强调一定是及物动词的过去分词,因为不及物动词不能带宾语,也就不可能有被动语态。英语主动语态有16个时态;被动语态常用的有8个,以give为例说明如下:

被动语态的疑问句是将第一个助动词移到主语之前、句末用问号;否定式是在第一个助动词后加notnever等其他否定词、句末用句号。如:

During the interview, were you asked questions in English? No, I wasnt asked questions in English. “面试的时候,用英语问你问题了吗?”“没有,没有用英语问我问题。”

The origin of the universe will probably never be explained. 宇宙的起源大概永远也不会被解释清楚。

Is the restaurant being decorated? 那家餐馆正在装修吗?

The restaurant is not being decorated. In the fact the restaurant has never been decorated 那家餐馆没有在装修。实际上,那家餐馆从来没有装修过。

(四)被动语态的用法

1、不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者。换个说法,有一件事情不知道是谁干的或者不想说出是谁干的,这时就用被动语态。例如:

I felt a littlie nervous when I was being interviewed. 我接受面试的时候,有点紧张。

These fighters are imported from Russia. 这些战斗机是从俄国进口的。

That place has been turned into a swimming pool. 那个地方已被变成游泳池。

2、说话或发表意见时,为了显得客观公正,也常用被动语态

Hes said/believed/reported to be in the U. S. A. 据说/据信/据报道他在美国。

还有下列常用句型(that后面跟句子):

It is said that…….  据说

It is reported that…….  据报道

It is hoped that…….  希望

It is believed that…….  人们相信

It is announced that…….  据宣布

it is (well) known that…….  众所周知

It has been decided that…….  已经决定

It is supposed that…….  人们认为

It is suggested that…….  有人建议

It must be remembered that…….  务必记住

It is taken for granted that…….  被视为当然

(五)主动句变被动句的注意事项

一是时态不能改变;二是变为被动语态后,谓语动词要和被动语态的主语在人称、数上保持一致。还要作如下变动:把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语;主动语态的主语放在by的后面,组成介词短语,再把这个介词短语放在被动语态的谓语动词之后。在动作的执行者无须说明或不必要强调时,by短语可以省略。例如:

They will open a new supermarket there soon. 他们很快将在那里开办个新超市。

A new supermarket will be opened there soon. 一个新超市不久将在那里开办。

The doctor gave two lectures in English. 那位医生用英语讲了两次课。

Two lectures were given by the doctor in English. 由那位医生用英语讲了两次课。

Somebody has warned us to be careful of rats. 有人警告我们要当心老鼠。

We have been warned to be careful of rats. 我们受到警告,要当心老鼠。

如果主动语态有两个宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语),变为被动语态时,可将其中任何一个宾语变为主语,另一个不变。但较常见的是将间接宾语变为被动语态的主语。

The reporters asked the president some questions. 记者们问了总统一些问题。

The president was asked some questions by the reporters. 变间接宾语为主语)

Some questions were asked the president by the reporters. (变直接宾语为主语)

We have given him a job. 我们已给了他一个工作。

He has been given a job. (变间接宾语为主语)

A job has been given (to) him. (变直接宾语为主语)

(六)含有情态动词的被动语态

句中含有情态动词时,其被动语态的结构是:情态动词+be+过去分词:

The timetable can be changed any time.  时间表随时可以改变。

This book may not be taken out of the reading room.  这本书不允许带出阅览室。

This dictionary must be taken good care of. 这本词典必须保管好。

(七)关于被动语态的几点说明

1、有些动词形式上是主动,意义上是被动。例如:

School begins in September.  学校九月份开学。

The library doesnt open on Sunday.  图书馆星期天不开放。

The machine runs well.  这台机器容易操作。

My pen writes well.  我的钢笔好使。

The cloth washes well.  这料子耐洗。

The dictionary sells well.  这词典销路很好。

The book hardly sells.  这书买不出去。

The door will not shut/lock.  门关/锁不上。

2make, see, watch, hear, notice, feel等使役动词和感官动词的宾语后面可以接不带to的不定式作宾补。但在被动语态中,不定式符号to必须补上。例如:

They made him go. 他们让他去。

He was made to go. 他被要求去了。

I heard him say good-bye to his friends. 我听见他向他的朋友说再见。

He was heard to say good-bye to his friends. 有人听到他向他的朋友说再见。

3、除助动词be外,动词get有时也可跟过去分词构成被动语态,是比较口语化的一种被动语态。这种结构中很少用by短语。例如:

I got lost in the huge market. 在那个巨大的市场中我迷失了方向。

You might get killed/hurt.  你会送命/受伤的。

In the end this story got translated into English. 这故事最后被译成了英文。

His car got damaged in a road accident. 他的车在交通事故中被毁了。

4、“have/get+宾语+过去分词”这个句型也表达了一种被动的意思。如:

Ill have the bike repaired in no time. 我一会就把自行车修好。

I had my wallet stolen/lost last Sunday when I was shopping. 上星期天买东西的时候我的钱夹被盗。

He got his leg broken when playing football. 踢足球的时候他把腿弄断了。

I bought these books at a discount and had two hundred dollars saved. 我打折买了这些书,省了两百美元。

5、在need, want, require后面,主动的-ing形式表达被动的意思:

My watch needs cleaning. (=needs to be cleaned)  我的表需要清洗。

Your garden needs watering. (=to be watered)  你的花园需要浇水。

Does your suit require pressing, sir?  先生,您的衣服要烫吗?

三、虚拟语气

多数中国人对虚拟语气的理解是:虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望,是假设的,虚构的,与事实相反的,或者是不太可能的。这种理解固然是对的,但并不全面。在英语中,虚拟语气是个广义的概念,包括好几种句型和结构。假设,意愿等只是虚拟语气的两个方面。

    英汉两种语言表达虚拟语气的方式差异:

而在英语中,虚拟语气是通过句子中谓语动词的特殊形式来表示的。这又一次证明动词在英语中的核心地位,又一次证明要学好英语语法,就要学好英语动词。由于虚拟语气是通过句子中谓语动词的特殊形式来表示的,因此,掌握虚拟语气中所使用的各种谓语动词形式变化是掌握虚拟语气的关键,这也是虚拟语气的难点。虚拟语气本身也是英语语法的一个难点。

学习虚拟语气的方法是分别弄通虚拟语气的各种句型和结构,各个击破。下面对虚拟语气在各种句式中的用法分别介绍。

(一)虚拟语气用于表示假设的条件状语从句,状语从句相当于汉语的“假如…” “要是…”等。

请看一个句子:

If she invites me tomorrow, I shall go to the party. 如果她明天邀请我参加聚会,我就去。

这是个带条件从句的主从复合句,是直接的陈述语气,主句谓语动词用将来时,从句谓语动词用现在时代替将来时,表示能实现的动作。这句话说明说话人认为邀请的可能性较大。此句的条件是“只要她邀请我”,“去”这一动作就能实现。

请把这句话与下面虚拟语气的带条件从句的主从复合句进行比较:

1   If she invited me, I should go to the party. 假如她邀请我参加聚会,我就去。(说话人认为邀请的可能性较小或不可能。)

这句话主句谓语动词用过去将来时,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,其含义是:

She will probably not invite me, so I shall not go to the party.  她很可能不会邀请我参加聚会,所以我不会去。

2   If she had invited me yesterday, I should have gone to the party. 假如她昨天邀请我参加聚会,我就去了。

这句话主句谓语动词用“should have + 过去分词”形式,从句用过去完成时,对过去发生的事情进行虚拟假设,表示与过去

事实相反的情况,其含义是:

She didnt invite me yesterday, so I didnt go to the party. 她昨天没有邀请我参加聚会,因此我没有去。

3   If she should invite me tomorrow, I should go to the party. 如果她明天邀请我参加聚会,我会去的。

这句话主句谓语动词用过去将来时,从句谓语动词也用过去将来时,表示的意思是,“邀请我”的可能性较小,对将来要发生的情况表示怀疑。其含义是:

It is unlikely that she will invite me tomorrow, so I shall not go to the party. 明天她不可能会邀请我,因此我不会去。

从以上例句可以看出:虚拟语气的条件句是用谓语动词的特殊形式来表示与现在、过去事实相反的情况或对将来发生的情况表示怀疑,和直陈语气条件句的谓语动词形式以及所表达的含义完全不同。虚拟语气条件句中所用的谓语动词过去式、过去完成式、过去将来式等只表示不同的虚拟语气,与直陈语气句子的过去时、过去完成时等毫无关系,在学习时应注意加以区别,不要混淆。

现将虚拟语气在条件句中的各种具体形式和用法分述如下:

1、对现在的虚拟,表示与现在事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句的谓语动词用过去式(be的过去式用were.而主句中的谓语动词用would (should, could, might) + 动词原形。见下表:

2、对过去的虚拟,表示与过去的事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句的谓语动词用过去完成时,主句的谓语动词用would (should, could, might)+过去分词。见下表:

3、表示与将来事实相反的假设,对将来表示怀疑,或将来的动作不太可能实现时,条件状语从句和主句的谓语动词有以下形式:(见表)

4、当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间来调整。这与以上三种情况不同,虚拟语气的谓语动词形式没有遵循以上规律。

5. 以上句型可以转换成以下形式:

1)条件状语从句省略if:在书面语中,如果条件状语从句的谓语中有were, had should, 就可以省略if, 并将were, had should 放到句首,谓语主语之前,用 Were/Had/Should + 主语”的形式。这种虚拟语气在意义上与带if 的条件状语从句相同。当然,如果从句没有were, had, should,就不能省略if.

2)用介词短语代替条件状语从句。(可以改为条件状语从句)。例如:

Without air, there would be no living things.

But for your help, I couldnt have done it.

3)用其他方式代替条件状语从句(可以改写为条件状语从句。)例如:

It would produce bad results to do that. 用动词不定式 =If you did that/should do that, it would produce bad results.

6、虚拟语气省略条件从句或主句

表示虚拟语气的条件句的主句或从句有时可以省略,而省略部分的含义仍有所体现。

(二)虚拟语气的其他句型和用法

1、用在“wish+宾语从句”中,表示很难实现或不能实现的愿望,可以翻译为“但愿…”, “悔不该…”等。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语动词用过去式;表示将来的愿望,从句的谓语动词用“would (could)+动词原形”;对过去的事情表示愿望,从句的谓语动词用 had+过去分词” 或“could + have + 过去分词”。Wish 后面的宾语从句必须用虚拟语气,不管这个愿望是否能实现。如:

I wish it were Spring all the year round.

I wish you could go with us.

We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.

2、用在as if/as though,even if/even though引导的从句中: 这时,如果从句中表示的动作发生在过去,则谓语动词用had+过去分词形式;如果指的时现在的状况,则用过去式(bewere);指将来则用would(should, could)+动词原形。这里只看从句动作发生的时间,与主句的时态没有关系。

3、在It is (high) time (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词常用过去式(be的过去式用were), 或用should+动词原形(should 不能省略)来表示。这句话的意思是“(现在)该…”。For example:

It is time we left/should leave.

It is high time that you got married.

4、在 I would rather (that)…句型中,后面的从句的谓语动词用过去式(be的过去式用were)。这句话的意思是“我宁可…”,表示说话人的意愿。

For example:

Id rather I were in the rain now.

Id rather you did not tell him.

5、用在suppose开头的祈使句中,从句的谓语动词变化与as if后面的动词变化规律相同,用过去式、过去完成式、或过去将来式。意思是“假如…”,但suppose 是动词,不是连词。如:

Suppose the boss walked in. What should I do?

Suppose Saddam had not been captured. What would the U.S. do?

Suppose Chen Shui-bian should declare Taiwan independent.   What would China do?

6、用在for fear thatlest引导的从句中,表示“怕…”“万一…”等意思。从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略。如:

She closed the windows for fear that she (should) catch cold.

The officer forbade the use of artillery lest the citys industry be damaged.

Lest the wall should collapse, they evacuated from the building.

7. 在表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词,如arrange, command, demand, desire, insist, order, propose, request, require, suggest, beg, move(提议)后面的宾语从句中,谓语动词用should + 动词原形,should 可以省略,而引导宾语从句的that 不能省略。例如:

We suggested that we (should) have a meeting.

We insisted that they (should) go with us.

The doctor ordered that she (should) stay in bed for a few days.

He demanded that we (should) start right away.

The commander ordered that the bridge (should) be bombed.

The villagers requested that the old building not be pulled down.

Now lets do some translation:

总经理坚持该项目必须按计划执行。

The general manager insisted that the project be carried out as planned.

    省长请求再给他一次机会。

    The governor requested that he be given another chance.

美国要求伊朗必须无条件放弃其核武器计划。

The United States demanded that Iran should unconditionally give up its nuclear weapon program (program to develop nuclear weapons)

最高法院裁定此案必须重新审理。

The Supreme Court ruled that this case be retried.

医生建议,即使在节假日人们也不应该熬夜。

8、使用上述表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词派生的名词,或在这些动词用作名词时,名词之后的从句用虚拟语气,即从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形,should 可以省略。从句的引导词that 不能省略。这与上述第7项类似。如:

He made a request that he (should) be allowed to take 3 days off. = He requested that he be allowed to take 3 days off.

Our suggestion is that education not be industrialized. = We suggest that education not be industrialized.

The presidents decision is that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time. =The president decided that the war against terrorism be launched at the right time.

9、上述动词在It is suggested that, It is required that, Its requested that, Its ordered that, Its arranged that…句型中,that 之后的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用should+动词原形, should 可以省略,但引导词that 不能省略。如:

It was suggested that he attend the conference.

It was requested that the trial be openly reported.

10、在Its important (imperative, necessary, essential, vital, desirable, advisable, better) that…句型中,that 引导的从句用虚拟语气,即谓语动词用should 动词原形,should可以省略。这个句型表示说话人的意见、要求等。

For example:

It is essential that there should be enough food and clothing for the winter.

It is desirable that your wedding be postponed until next July.

It is imperative that the board chairman be present at the board meeting.

另外,在一些习惯用语中也有虚拟语气的形式。但最好把这些习惯用语作为一种句型来记住。如:

May you be happy!

May you succeed!

Long live the Peoples Republic of China!

Everybody leave the room!

You had better not resign.

I would rather not tell you.

总之,虚拟语气是英语中的一个难点,因为虚拟语气的用法和句型较多,动词的变化比较复杂。在学习的时候要逐个过关。同时,也要善于发现虚拟语气的规律。根据动词的变化,大致可以把虚拟语气分为三种:

    一种是动词用过去式,过去分词式,或过去将来式,这主要是用if, wish, suppose的情况;

    一种是动词用should+动词原形(should可以省略),这主要用于表示建议、要求、命令等意思的动词或名词后面所接的从句,以及It is important (necessary) that…后面所接的从句;

    一种是动词用过去式,如It is (high) time (that)…和I would rather 后面的从句。同学们还可以自己总结适合自己的规律,如把虚拟语气句型可以分为用于简单句、条件状语从句、宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、定语从句、同位语从句等。

Now lets do some exercises to consolidate what we have learned about subjunctive mood:

四、非谓语动词

1、我喜欢做饭。“ I like cooking.

本句中,“like”(喜欢)是谓语。“cooking”(做饭)是宾语,用动名词形式。又如:“ He likes cooking. ”在英语中。谓语动词经常随着主语的人称、数而变化,但动名词作宾语时是不变的。

2、对我来说,学英语不容易。“ It\" s not easy for me to learn English.

3、从太空看,地球是个蓝色的球体。 Seen from the space, the earth is a blue sphere.

请比较这些句子的中英文。在这几个汉语句子中,做饭、学英语、从太空看分别作句子的宾语、主语和状语,但是其动词形式“做”、“学”、“看”没有变化。而在这几句英语中,“做饭”变成了cooking, “学”变成了to learn,“看”变成了seen. 动词形式发生了变化,而且必须发生变化,因为这些句子有另外的谓语动词。因此这些动词叫做“非谓语动词”,又叫“非限定性动词”,他们没有人称和数的变化。这是英汉动词的巨大差别,也是中国人学英语的一个难点,同时也是在使用英语时容易犯错误的地方。需要特别注意的是:英语的单句一般只有而且必须有一个主谓结构,即一个谓语,如果单句中出现了另外的动词,这些动词就要改变形式。

以上英语句子中cooking, to learn, seen 等具有动词特征,但是在句子中不能作谓语的动词形式,就叫动词的非谓语形式,也叫非谓语动词。

我们再比较 I like cooking. He likes cooking.”这两句话主语不同,谓语动词like形式变了,但意义没有变化。而cooking 没有任何变化。再看 It is not easy for me to learn English. It is not easy for him to learn English. “对我”for me, “对他”for him之后的 to learn”没有任何变化。可以看出,非谓语动词是不随人称和数的变化而变化的,它们不受人称和数的限定,所以又叫“非限定动词”。

动词在句子中除了充当谓语外,还可以起名词、形容词或副词的作用,在句子中充当主语、宾语、表语、补语、定语和状语。这就是动词的非谓语形式。当句子中需要用某种动作作主语、宾语或作某种修饰、说明的成分时,就要使用这种形式。

动词的非谓语形式有三种:

1)动词不定式:to study (to + 动词原形)

2)分词:studying (现在分词)studied (过去分词)

3)动名词:studying (形式与现在分词相同)

动词非谓语形式仍具有动词的一般特征,可以带有宾语、状语等构成短语。

动词非谓语形式有以下几种形式变化(以write为例):

A  动词不定式

其形式是“to+动词原形”。 to是不定式符号,无词义。其否定式是在to前面加上not, never等否定词。 不定式可以有自己的逻辑主语,由for引出,加在不定式短语前面。

如果不定式的逻辑主语是表示不定式动作的承受者,则不定式用被动语态。所谓逻辑主语,就是指非谓语动词等动作的执行者。由于非谓语动词等带有动词的特征,但又不是谓语动词,所以这个动作的执行者就不能称为主语,而在逻辑上又是这个动作的执行者,所以就称为逻辑主语。

如果不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,这个不定式一般要用被动语态。疑问词(who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, why, how还包括whether)等后面加不定式构成不定式短语,可做主语,表语,宾语等。

(一)作主语。 在不定式短语作主语的句子中,往往用 it 作形式主语,而不把不定式短语放在句子的后面。如:

To die like that is a terrible thing.=It is a terrible thing to die like that.

象那样死去是一件可怕的事。( it 作形式主语,把真正的主语to die like that放在后面)

To know oneself is difficult.=Its difficult to know oneself.

有自知之明不容易。

To tell a lie is not always easy.= Its not always easy to tell a lie.

撒谎并非总是容易。

Never to offend anyone is my principle.     永远不得罪任何人就是我的原则。

Its against nature to remain single.         保持单身是违反自然的。

To see is to believe.                       眼见为实。

For a dog to die like that is a terrible thing. = It is a terrible thing for a dog to die like that.

一条狗象那样死去是一件可怕的事。(for a dog是不定式的主语)

For one to know everything is impossible.= Its impossible for one to know everything.

一个人什么都知道是不可能的。

For his brother John to go to sea seems natural.= It seems natural for his brother John to go to sea.   他兄弟John去当水手是很自然的事。

Itll be a great shame for you to forget her.       你要是把她忘了,那可太不应该了。

Its not proper for us not to accept the invitation.  我们不接受邀请不合适。(否定)

It has not yet been decided when and where to discuss her resignation. 何时何地讨论她的辞职还没定。

但是,下列形容词做表语时,不定式的逻辑主语由 of 引出:

careless粗心的,clever聪明的,cruel残忍的,foolish愚蠢的,good好的,kind好心的 naughty淘气的,nice好的,polite礼貌的,right正确的,rude无礼的 silly愚蠢的,stupid傻的,unwise不明智的,wise明智的,wrong错误的,等等。

为什么这些词要用 of 引出不定式呢?

因为这些形容词都是描写人的性格和特点的形容词。“It is + 形容词 of sb + to do sth”这样的句型更强调某人如何如何,可以改写为:“Sb + be + 形容词 + to do sth. 而“for sb to do sth”这一结构更强调做某事如何如何。例如:

1   It is difficult for me to learn English.  更强调学英语很难,不能写成

     I am difficult to learn English. (这句话含有逻辑错误。)

2   It is unwise of you to go to the United States at this time. =You are unwise to go to the United States at this time. 强调你不明智。

Its very kind of you to come to see us off. =Youre kind to come to see us off. 你来为我们送行太好了。

Its unwise of him to drink and smoke so much.=He is unwise to drink and smoke so much. 他喝这么多酒、抽这么多烟是不明智的。

Its extremely cruel of John to kill animals.    John杀害动物真是残忍之极。

Its rude/polite of Jack to say this to her.      Jack对她说这个,很无礼/礼貌。

(二)作宾语及宾语补语。

1、有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。常见的这类动词有:afford负担得起,

agree同意,arrange安排,ask要求,attempt试图,beg乞求,begin开始,choose选择,claim声称,consent同意,dare敢,decide决定,decline谢绝,desire欲想,demand要求,determine决心,expect期待,fail失败,forget忘记,hate讨厌,help帮助,hope希望,intend打算,learn学习,like喜欢,long渴望,manage设法,mean打算,need需要,offer主动提出,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,prepare准备,pretend假装,promise答应,refuse拒绝,remember记得,seek寻求,seem好像,tend倾向,threaten威胁,undertake承担,volunteer志愿,want想要,wish希望等。

I agreed to support him. 我答应支持他。

He said he wanted to be a professor. 他说他想当教授。

My daughter preferred to have eggs and milk for breakfast when she was in her twenties.

我女儿二十几岁时早饭喜欢吃鸡蛋和牛奶。

2、不定式可以和how, which, what, who, whom, whose, when, where还有whether等词连用作宾语。常跟这种结构作宾语的动词有:ask询问,advise建议,consider考虑,decide决定,discover发现,discuss讨论,explain解释,find out查明,forget忘记,inquire打听,know知道,learn学会,remember记得,show演示,tell告诉,teach教,think想,understand懂得,wonder想知道,等等。例如:

I dont know where to get so much money. 我不知道去哪里搞这么多钱。

They havent decided whether to leave or stay. 他们还没决定是走还是留。

此外,这种不定式结构还可作主语,表语,和介词宾语等。

How to live a happy life is a difficult question to answer. 怎样过幸福生活是个很难回答的问题

The question is whom to choose for the position.  问题是这个位置选谁。

That was a discussion about how to increase their strength.  那是一次关于怎样增强他们力量的讨论。

He said nothing about what to do with her.  关于拿她怎么办,他啥也没说。

She asked my suggestion just now about where to go for her holidays. 关于去哪里度假,她刚才征求了我的意见。

3、有些动词需要不定式作宾语补足语。这种动词常见的有:ask请求,advise劝告,allow允许,beg乞求,believe相信,call on号召,cause促使,compel强迫,command指挥,direct指导,enable使…能够,encourage鼓励,expect期望,feel觉得,force迫使,get使得,hate不喜欢,have使,hear听见,help帮助,inspire鼓舞,intend 打算,invite邀请,instruct指示,know知道,lead引导,let让,like喜欢,listen to  听,look at看,make 使得, notice注意到, observe观察,order命令,permit允许,persuade说服,prefer更喜欢,press施加压力,remind提醒,request请求,teach教,tell告诉,urge敦促,want 想要,warn警告,wish希望,等等。

I asked my mother to buy a new bike for me.  我请求妈妈给我买辆新自行车。

Tony knew his girl friend to be a shy college student.  托尼知道他的女朋友是一个害羞的大学生。

They helped you to get on the bus, didnt they? 他们帮你上了汽车, 是吗?

4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。这样的动词有:feel觉得,have使,hear听见,help帮助,let让,listen to 听,look at看,make使,notice 注意,see看见,observe 观察,watch观看 等,一类是感官动词,一类是使役动词。

A policeman saw the accident happen.  一位警察看见事故发生。

We listened to her talk about her experience abroad.  我们听她讲国外的经历。

Wed be glad to have you work with us.  我们会很高兴有你和我们一起工作。

上述help后面的不定式省掉to与保留to都可以。在被动语态中,上述动词后面的不定式要把省去的to还原。

I heard the dog come in.  我听见那条狗进来。

=The dog was heard to come in. 有人听见那条狗进来。

I saw her go out by bike. 我看见她骑着自行车出去了。

=She was seen to go out by bike.  有人看见她骑着自行车出去了。

Can I help (to) lift this heavy box? 我可以帮着搬起这个沉重的箱子吗?

You may as well help me (to)get things straight.  你不妨帮我把东西整理好。

She helped the old woman (to) cross the street.  他帮助那位老妇人过街

had better(最好),would rather(宁愿),would sooner(宁愿),would (just) as soon(宁愿),cannot but(不能不,不由得不),cannot help but(不能不,不由得不)等成语后面也跟不带to的不定式:

He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 他宁愿听别人也不愿自己说。

He would sooner play than work.  他宁愿玩也不愿干活。

You had better go away right now.  你最好立即就走。

I would rather take this method. 我倒愿意采取这个办法。

Id rather walk than take a bus.  我宁可走也不愿坐公共汽车。

Shed rather die than lose the children. 她宁可死也不愿失去孩子们。

Id rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.

Shed sooner stay at home.

I would as soon do it by myself.

I would just as soon stay as go. 我宁愿住下也不愿去。

We couldnt but weep at the sad news.

You cant but respect them.

Rather thansooner than同义,都是“宁可”,“与其…(不如)”,“不是…(而是)”的意思。当它们放在句首时,其后跟不带to的不定式;在其它位置时其后的不定式可带也可不带t

Rather than risk breaking up his marriage, he told his wife everything. 他把一切都告诉了妻子,而不是冒离婚的危险。

Rather than cause trouble, he left. 他宁可走开而不愿引起麻烦。

Sooner than marry that man, she would earn her living as a waitress. 她宁可当女招待养活自己,也不嫁给那个男人。

He decided to write rather than telephone. 他决定写信,不打电话。

The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. 经理相信重要的是投资买新机器,而不是增加工资。

Rather than John do it, Id prefer to do the job myself.  与其让John干这件事情,我宁可自己动手。

4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。

Why 起首的疑问句中跟不带to的不定式:

Why not come with us?  为什么不跟我们一起来呢? =Why don\" t you come with us?

Why not go for a game of tennis? 为什么不去打网球呢?

Why not relax yourself?    为什么不放松你自己呢?

Why not try to train your character? 为什么不培养你的性格呢?

Why not give the $40 to Tom? 干吗不把那40美金给汤姆呢?

For Gods sake, why bring that up again?   看在上帝的份上,干吗又提这事呢?

Why split hairs over the color of the dress?  干吗对连衣裙的颜色吹毛求疵呢?

Why run this risk?  干吗冒这个险?

Why risk breaking the law?  干吗冒犯法的险呢?

5、不定式作宾语而后面还有宾语补语时,常用it来代替不定式短语,而把真正作宾语的不定式短语放在补足语后面。常见的动词有:consider认为,feel觉得,find发现,make使,think认为,等等。例如:

I think it best to go. 我想最好走。

Do you consider it right to send our doctors over? 你觉得派我们的医生去对吗?

I found it strange for her not to come today. 我发现她今天没来是很奇怪的。

注意:hope希望,demand要求,suggest建议,这三个词不能跟不定式作宾补。

错误的句子:

I hope you to be happy. 我希望你快乐。

I suggest you to take him seriously.    我建议你要把他当回事。

We demanded them to give us a definite answer.我们要求他们给个确切的答复。

正确的句子:

I hope that youll be happy. 我希望你快乐。I suggest that you take him seriously.  我建议你要把他当回事。

I advise you not to take him seriously.  我建议你不要把他当回事。

We demanded that they give us a definite answer.  我们要求他们给个确切的答复。

(三)作定语。

不定式短语作定语时,一般放在被修饰的词之后,有些名词的后面常用不定式作定语。常见的有:ability能力,agreement一致,协议,ambition抱负、野心,anxiety焦急,attempt试图,campaign战役,chance机会,claim声称,courage勇气,decision决定,determination决心,drive努力,eagerness殷切的心情,effort努力,failure失败,hope希望,intention目的意图,motive force动力,movement运动、协议,need需要,opportunity机会,plan计划,promise诺言,readiness乐意,refusal拒绝,reluctance勉强不愿,resolution决心,tendency倾向,right权力,struggle斗争,threat威胁,time时候,way方法,willingness愿意,wish希望。

与这些词相对应的形容词或动词常接动词不定式。如ability be able to, refusal refuse to 等。

作定语时不定式表示将要发生的动作。

There is not any one to save him.  没有任何能救他的人。

Hes a not a man to tell lies. 他不是那种撒谎的人。

Hes a man to be trusted   他是个可以信赖的人。

He needs love to strengthen his broken heart.    他需要爱来给他那破碎的心以力量。

I dont understand his idea to send his son to the Sahara. 我不明白他把儿子送到撒哈拉沙漠的想法。

I need to buy a box to hold my CDs.    我需要买个装CD片的盒子。

This visit is a good opportunity to learn Chinese.  这次访问是学习中文的好机会。

No investigation, no right to speak. 没有调查就没有发言权。

Not to speak much is the best way to avoid trouble. 不多言是避免麻烦的最好办法。

This is a good way to make money. 这是个赚钱的好方法。

We were given some bread to eat.  给了我们一些面包吃。

Ive a lot of things to take care of in the office today. 今天我办公室里由于很多事情要处理。

Have you got a key to unlock this door?  你有开这个门的钥匙吗?

He needs a place to live in. 他需要有个住的地方。

This is not a pen to write with but to draw with. 这不是写字而是画画用的笔。

I have not a friend to talk with. 我没有能谈心的朋友。

作定语时,也可以给不定式加上主语。例如:

The order for the army to start has been given. 已经发出了让部队开始的命令。

The power for science to serve mankind is limitless. 科学为人类服务的力量是无穷的。

The letter for you to answer is placed on your desk..   要你回的那封信放在你办公桌上。

(四)作表语。放在系动词之后。

例如:

To gamble is to commit suicide, but not to get rich.  赌博就是自杀,而不是致富。

To criticize others is to make enemies.  批评别人就是树敌。

To do everything is to do nothing.   什么都做等于什么也做不成。

Perhaps the most popular way of relaxing is to participate in sports.  也许最受欢迎的放松方式就是参加体育活动。

This matter is for you to consider.  这个问题是要你考虑的。

These apples are for the guests to eat. 这些苹果是给客人们吃的。

My hope is for all members to come together once a year.  我的希望是所有成员每年聚会一次。

My advice is for you to apologize to her. 我的建议是你向她道歉。

The question is where to go for help. 问题是到哪里求助。

To respect others is to be respected. 尊重别人就是受到别人的尊重。

To see her is to love her. 见到她就会爱上她。

(五)不定式短语和疑问词连用(who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, how,还包括whether

1)做主语。

例如:

Who to turn to is what she wants to know.  找谁帮忙是她想知道的。

Its problem what to do. 干什么还是个问题。

How to be wealthy, healthy and happy will always remain a question mark. 怎样才能富有,健康和幸福将永远是个问号。

2)做表语。例如:

The question is which to take first.  问题是先拿哪一个。

What remains for you to explain is how to put the plan into practice and whose help to seek. 剩下需要你解释的是怎样实施计划以及寻求谁的帮助。

The question is which of the methods to adopt.  问题是采取这些方法中的哪一个。

3)作宾语,常用这一结构作宾语的动词有ask, consider, decide discuss, explain, forget, find out, guess, inquire, know, learn, remember, see(=understand), show, settle(=decide), tell(=know), think, understand, wonder等。

Ive found out where to buy them cheaply. 我发现了在哪里买这些东西便宜。

Do you remember when totch off the machine?   你记得什么时候关掉机器吗?

I cant tell what to do . 我说不好怎么办。

How can you tell which button to press? 你怎么知道按哪个按钮?

You know very well when to say what and how to say it. 你很清楚什么时候说什么话以及怎样说。

He cant decide what time to leave or whether to leave at all.他不能决定何时离开或者到底是否离开。

有些双宾语及物动词,也可用这个结构做直接宾语。常用的有tell, inform, show, advise, ask, teach,等。如:

I showed her how to use the remote control.          我向她演示怎样使用遥控器。

The salesman told him whichtch to turn on first.    售货员告诉他先开哪个开关。

Will you advise me which to buy?                    你建议我买哪个?

Please inform me where to get the tickets.            请告诉我到哪里去弄票。

4)做定语。例句:

I must find a pen with which to fill in this form(=to fill in this form with). 我必须找支钢笔填表用。

He offered me some hot coffee with which to refresh me spirit (=to refresh me spirit with). 他给我提供了点热咖啡提提神。

Nobel began to seek ways in which to make the explosive safer to handle.诺贝尔开始寻找那种炸药操作起来更安全的方法。

(六)作状语。不定式短语作状语,表示目的、原因、结果等。位置一般在句尾或句首。

        1)表示目的。如:

We waved flags, beat drums and blew bugles to encourage the players. 我们摇旗擂鼓吹号,来鼓励运动员。

They went to the U.S.A. not to study English but to study law and business. 他们去了美国,不是为了学英语,而是为了学法律和商务。

为了强调,有时用in order to (为了)或so as to (以便)加动词原形,放在句首或句尾均可。例如;

In order to improve my English, I read China Daily every day. 为了提高英语水平,我每天都看《中国日报》。

He took a taxi so as not to miss the train.  为了不误火车,他坐了出租车。

有些不定式习惯用语放在句首或句尾,作独立成分。例如:

To be frank(with you), this is not satisfactory.       老实(和你)说,这不令人满意。

To be fair, she is an honest girl.                  说句公道话,她是一个诚实的姑娘。

To tell you the truth, you are wrong..              实话告诉你,你错了。

这样的短语还有to tell you the truth实话告诉你,to conclude 最后, to begin with首先,to cut a long story short 简而言之,to go back to the point回到正题,not to make too much of it 别小题大做,to put it another way 换句话说,to hear him talk听他说话的口气,等等。

2)表示原因。例如:

To hear him talk in that manner, you would think him a foreigner.  他这样说话,你会以为他是外国人。The old father smiled to know his success.  知道他成功的消息,那位老父亲笑了。

不定式短语可以和表示情绪的形容词和过去分词连用,有时说明产生这种情绪的原因,有时不是说明原因,而是和形容词一起说明主语的情况。

常见的这类形容词和过去分词有:

able有能力的,afraid 害怕的,amazed 感到惊异的,angry生气的,anxious 急于的,astonished 感到惊讶的, careful小心的, certain有把握的,clever聪明的, comfortable舒服的,cruel残忍的,deep深的,delighted 高兴的, difficult有困难的, disappointed感到失望的,determined 有决心的,eager 急于的, easy容易的,fit 合适的,foolish 愚蠢的,fortunate 幸运的, free自由的,frightened感到害怕的,glad高兴的,good好的, happy幸福的,hard艰苦的,lucky 幸运的,overjoyed 高兴的, pleased高兴的,possible 可能的,proud 自豪的,ready 准备好的,relieved 感到轻松的,right正确的,sad悲伤的,shocked感到惊讶的, sorry难过的,sure 肯定的, surprised感到惊讶的, unable没能力的,useless没用的,willing 愿意的,worthy 值得的,wrong 错误的等。

例如:

Hell be angry to hear these words. 听到这些话他会生气的。

Youre lucky to have me as your teacher. 有我当你们老师,你们很幸运。

He feels proud to be on the school football team. 作为校足球队队员他感到很自豪。

Be careful not to catch cold. 小心别感冒。

Hes anxious to go back straight to London. 他急于直接回伦敦。

Theyll be ready to leave in about an hour. 再有大约一小时他们就准备好了。

The new manager is easy to get along with . 新经理很容易相处。

This river is broad, deep and good tom in.   这条河宽且深,是游泳的好地方。

Your sofa is comfortable to sit in.  你的沙发坐上去很舒服。

3)不定式做结果状语只限于下面几个词:learn得知,find 发现,see 看见,hear 听见, to be told被告知,make 使得 等。only+不定式常表示出乎意料的结果。例如:

He hurried to the airport to learn that the flight had already taken off. 他急忙赶到机场,却得知飞机已经起飞了。

He returned home from his holiday only to find that his house had been broken into. 他休假回家,却发现他的房子被破门而入了。

4 不定式还可以与“be said, be reported,…”等连用构成复合谓语。这一结构可变成“Its said, Its reported,…”(见被动语态部分)。如:

An explosion is reported to have happened, and three are known to have been killed.

= Its reported that an explosion has happened and its known that three have been killed.

据报道发生了一起爆炸,已知三人被炸死。

(七)不定式的时态。动词不定式一般有三种时态形式,即一般式、进行式和完成式。

1 一般式(to+动词原形):表示与主句谓语动词动作同时(或几乎同时)发生或在主句谓语动词之后发生的事情。例如:

Were happy to have you on our side. 有你在我们这边我们很高兴。

I saw him go out. 我看见他出去了。( 不定式go out see同时发生。)

They invited me to have dinner with them. 他们邀请我和他们一起吃晚饭。

I hope to see you again. 我希望再见到你(to see发生在hope之后)

2 进行式(to be+现在分词):表示主句谓语的动作发生时,不定式动作正在进行。例如:

Shes said /believed to be living nearby. 据说/据信她就住在附近。

When he came in, I happened to be sleeping in bed. 他进来时,我碰巧正在床上睡觉。

They seem/appear to be enjoying themselves.  看上去他们似乎很快活。

He pretended to be doing his homework when he heard his fathers sound. 他听见父亲的声音,假装正在做作业。

The president was reported to be visiting the hospital. 据报道总统正在访问那家医院。

3)完成式(to have+过去分词):表示在主句谓语的动作之前发生的事情。

如:Im glad to have met your parents here. 我很高兴在这儿见到了你父母。(已见过)

Im sorry to have kept him waiting for me so long. 我很抱歉让他等了我这样久。(已经等过了)(八)不定式的被动语态。当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式。不定式的被动形式有两种:

一般式:to be+过去分词

完成式:to have been+过去分词

例如:

Youre lucky to have been accepted . 你很幸运已经被接受了。

These criminals are to be hanged . 这些罪犯是将被绞死的。

Were glad to have been invited.    受到邀请我们很高兴。

Whats to be done next? 下一步做什么?

It is an honor for me to be asked to speak here.   我很荣幸应邀在这里讲话。

(八)为了避免重复,不定式可省略,但to有时保留,有时不保留。

例如:

You will make it if you try (to).  如果你努力,你会成功的。

George says he is going to leave Shanghai, but I dont think he really wants to. George 说要离开上海,但是我不认为他真的愿意走。

Some of them retired, and others were ready to. 一些人退休了,还有的准备退。

He always speaks faster than he needs to. 他说话总是没必要的快。

Id like to do it now, but I havent got the time (to). 我倒是想现在干,但没时间。

Would you go there with me? Im glad to.  “你愿意和我一起去吗?”“愿意。”

Did you pass the exam? No, I tried (to), but I failed. “你考试及格了吗?”“没有,我努力了,但没成功。

Do you want to sing them an English song? I prefer not to. “你愿意为他们唱首英文歌吗?”“我不想唱。”

Youd better sing an English song if they ask you (to) again.如果他们再要求你,你最后唱一首英文歌。

后面常省略不定式而保留to的结构,还有:

used to    常常      be going to   打算

mean to  打算      ought to     应该

plan to   计划      want to         要想

(九)两个不定式由and, or, except, but, than 连接时,第二个可省略to,尤其是两个不定式紧密相连时。

例如:

I intend to call on him and discuss this question again.  我打算去拜访他并和他谈谈这个问题。

Id like to lie down and go to sleep.  我想躺下睡觉。

Youre free to talk or laugh here.  在这里你可以随便说笑。

Im anxious to go and ask him about it.  我急于去问问他这个事。

Do you want to have lunch now or wait till later?   你想现在吃午饭还是再等会儿?

We had nothing to do except (to) look at the posters outside the cinema. 我们无事可做,只有看看电影院外面的招贴。

He had nothing to do except talk nonsense.   除了胡说八道,他没别的事干。

I would rather die than be insulted.  我宁死也不受侮辱。

B、动名词

动名词可以起名词的作用,在句子中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。动名词仍保留动词的一般特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语,构成动名词短语。 动名词的否定形式是在前面加上not, never等否定词。

(一)做主语和表语。动名词短语用and连起来做主语时,谓语用复数形式。

例如:

Fishing in this lake is forbidden. 这个湖里禁止钓鱼。

Going abroad for a visit and settling down abroad are two different things. 出国访问和在国外定居是两件不同的事情。

It seems that reading English is easier than speaking it.似乎读英语比说英语容易。

My favorite hobby is fishing/collecting stamps .  我最喜欢的爱好是钓鱼/集邮。

Its no use; Its (no) good; Its useless ; Its (not) wise; Its (not) worthwhile; Its of great (no, little) importance 等习惯表达中,It为形式主语,而将做主语的动名词短语放在后面。例如:

Its no use /good ringing her up now.  现在给她打电话没用了。

Is it worthwhile bargaining two hours for two cents?    为两分钱讲价两小时值得吗?

Its wise trying again.  再试一次是明智的。

It is of great importance fighting against pollution. 制止污染有重要意义。

It is no use operating on the sick man. He should have been sent here early. 给这个病人做手术已经没用了。本应该早些把他送来。

It is no good smoking; youd better give it up.    吸烟没好处,你最好戒掉。

(二)动名词短语作宾语。

常用的能接动名词的动词有:admit承认,appreciate 感激,avoid 避免,advise 建议,cant  help 不禁,celebrate 庆祝,consider 考虑,complete 完成, contemplate沉思、打算,defer推迟,delay 延期,deny 否认,detest 痛恨,discontinue 停止, dislike不喜欢,dispute不同意,endure 忍耐,enjoy 喜欢, escape逃脱,excuse 原谅, fancy想象,feel like 想要, finish结束, 严禁,forgive 原谅,hinder 阻碍,imagine想象,keep 保持,mention 提到,mind 在意,miss 错过,pardon 饶恕、原谅,permit允许,postpone 推迟,practise 实践、练习,prevent 阻止, recall 回忆, report报告,resent 怨恨, resist抵制、阻止,risk冒险,stop 停止,suggest 建议,understand 明白、理解,等等。

例如:

He avoided giving me a definite answer.   他避免给我一个正确答案。

David suggested selling your dog and car to pay the debt. 戴维建议卖掉你的狗和车抵债。

(我们把这句话改为虚拟语气:David suggested that you (should) sell your dog and car to pay the debt.

I couldnt risk missing that train. 我可不敢冒误了那趟火车的险。

下列动词既可用动词不定式又可用动名词做宾语:

abhor憎恶,attempt 试图,begin 开始,cannot bear 无法忍受,cannot stand无法忍受,cease停止,continue,继续,decline 拒绝,deserve值得,disdain蔑视,dread害怕,endure忍耐,forget忘记,hate 痛恨,intend打算,learn学,like 喜欢,loathe厌恶,love喜欢,mean意思是、意味着,need需要,neglect疏忽,omit省略,忽略,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,propose建议,regret后悔,remember记得,require需要,scorn蔑视、瞧不起,start开始,try尝试,努力,entail必须,involve涉及,necessitate使成为必要,等。以上多数动词用不定式或用动名词作宾语意思一样,个别不同。

(三)动名词短语作介词宾语的时候最多。

尤其是在短语动词后面。如:

The children are fond of listening to pop music. 孩子们喜欢流行音乐。

Are you interested in going to the show?  你有兴趣去看演出吗?

Thomas insisted on doing it in his own way.  托马斯坚持按他自己的方法做这件事。

我们把这句话改为虚拟语气:Thomas insisted that he (should) do it in his own way.

Excuse me for interrupting you.  请原谅我打扰你,

Since returning from Xian, he has been busy.  从西安回来后,他一直很忙。

He warned me againstmming in this lake.   他警告我不要在这个湖里游泳。

改为不定式短语:He warned me not tom in this lake.

We came out without being seen.  我们出来没被人看见。

Before finishing your homework, youd better not go out. 做完作业之前,你最好别出去。

改为用before 作连词:Before you finish your homework, youd better not go out.

(四)动名词也可以有自己的逻辑主语,就是在动名词短语前面加上物主代词或名词的所有格。

带逻辑主语的动名词短语可做主语,宾语,表语等。在非正式文体当中,经常把物主代词简化为宾格人称代词,把名词所有格简化为名词。例如:

I insisted on his (him) going to the cinema with me. 我坚持要他和我一起去看电影。

I can hardly imagine Peter(Peters) sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. 我简直不能想象彼得会在五天内横渡大西洋。

Lindas coming will do you good.(主语)  林达的到来对你有好处。

What made him angry was their (them) laughing.(表语)使他生气的是他们笑。

(五)动名词的完成式和被动语态:

1)完成式表示动名词的动作发生在谓语动作之前。例如:

I apologize for having broken my promise.  我没有遵守诺言,我道歉。

I dont remember having talked with him before.     我不记得以前曾和他谈过话。

恨不相逢未嫁时。 I regret not having met you before my marriage/before I got married.

2)当动名词的逻辑主语是动名词动作的对象或承受者时,动名词要用被动语态。例如:

I could no longer stand being treated like that.  我再也不能忍受被那样对待。

She was proud of having been trained in the U.K. 在英国受过训,她感到自豪。

他不喜欢嘲笑别人。  He doesnt like laughing at others.

他不喜欢被人嘲笑。→He doesnt like being laughed at.

(六)某些动词可接不定式也可接动名词做宾语,但意义有差别。

1like, love, hate, prefer等表示喜爱,厌恶的动词后面,可用动名词也可用不定式作宾语,意义差别不大。但当这些词前面有shouldwould时,一定要用动词不定式作宾语。表示想要,愿意,打算。例如:

She likes dancing. But she wouldnt like to dance with you. 她喜欢跳舞。(泛指)但他不喜欢和你跳。(特指)

He looked tired and I didnt like to disturb him. 他看上去很累,我不想打扰他。

I dont like reading, but Id like to read a magazine in bed tonight. 我不喜欢看书,但是今天晚上倒想躺在床上看本杂志。

Little Jim should love to be taken to the theatre this evening. 小吉姆今晚喜欢被带去看戏。

The reporter would /should like to see you again. 那位记者还想见见你。

We dont like talking about people behind their backs.我们不喜欢背后议论人。

hate to do sth 表示“真不想做某事,(但不得不做)”。如:

I hate to disturb you now, but I have no choice.  我真不想现在打扰你,但没有办法。

2 forget to do sth.忘记去做某事(未做)

     forget doing sth.忘记做过某事(已做)

例如:

The light in the office is still on. She forgot to turn it off. 办公室的灯还在亮着。她忘记关了。(关灯的动作没做)

The light in the office is off. She turned it off, but she forgot turning it off. 办公室的灯没亮着。是她关的,但她忘记关过灯。(已关过灯,她忘了)

她昨天又来还我二百元钱。她忘记上个月还我了。→She came to pay back RMB 200 to me again yesterday. She forgot having paid it back to me last month.

3remember to do sth.记着去做某事

remember doing sth. 记得做过某事

例如:

Do you remember meeting me at a party last year? 你记得去年一次宴会上见过我吗?(已见过面)

You must remember to leave tomorrow  你一定要记着明天离开。(还没离开)

4stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事    

stop doing sth. 停止做某事

例如:

She stopped to have a rest on a big rock by the side of the path. 她停下来,在路边的一块大石头上休息。

As long as you live, your heart never stops beating, 只要你活着,你的心脏就永远不会停止跳动。

5 regret to do sth. 对尚未做的或正在做的事情表示遗憾;

regret doing sth. 对已做的事情表示后悔

例如:

I regret saying that.  我后悔说了那话。

I regret to tell you the following truth.  我非常遗憾地告诉你下面这个事实。

6try to do sth努力去做某事    

try doing sth.做某事试一试

例如:

You must try to do it again. 你必须想方设法再做一次。

Lets try doing the work in some other way. 咱们用另一种方法做这工作试试。

7 mean to do sth. 打算、意欲做某事  

mean doing sth.意味着做某事

例如:

If it means delaying more than a week, Ill not wait. 如果这意味着拖延一个多星期,我就不等了。

I mean to help you, and nothing else.  我想帮助你们,没别的。

我不是想伤害你,对不起。→I didnt mean to hurt you. Im sorry.

宣布台独就是对中国宣战。→Declaring Taiwan independent means declaring war on China.

8 go on to do sth.做了一件事又去做另一件

go on doing sth继续做原来的事情

例如:

After he finished his maths, he went on to do his physics.  他作完数学后,接着又做物理。

I hope it wont go on raining all day long.     我希望这雨别一天下个没完。

C分词

分词有现在分词和过去分词两种。

    作为谓语,现在分词和be 一起构成进行时;过去分词和be一起构成被动语态,和have一起构成完成时。

例如:

I am reading a novel by Maupassant. 我正在看一本莫泊桑写的小说。(现在分词和be 一起表示主语正在进行的动作。)

Mr. Robinson has drunk five glasses of wine already. 鲁宾逊先生已经喝了五杯酒了。(过去分词和have 一起表示主语已经完成的动作。)

The gold fish bowl was broken by Xiao Tao just now. 金鱼缸刚才被小陶打破了。(过去分词和be 一起表示主语是动作的承受者。)

作为非谓语形式,分词可用作形容词和副词,在句子中充当定语、表语、补语和状语。但它仍保持动词的一般特征,可以有自己的宾语和状语。分词和自己的宾语、状语构成分词短语。

    现在分词有一般式和完成式。它的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的行为或存在的状态;它的完成式(having + 过去分词)表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作或存在的状态。

现在分词有主动语态和被动语态(being + 过去分词)

    过去分词只有一般式,表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。过去分词(及物动词)本身可以表示被动的含义,因而没有别的被动形式。

例如:

Having failed three times, he didnt want to try again. (=As he had failed three times, he didnt want to try again.) 他失败了三次,不想再干了。(having failed 表示发生在前的动作)

Walking along the sands, Crusoe saw in the sand the mark of a mans foot. (=While he was walking along the sands, Crusoe) 克鲁索沿着沙滩走的时候,看见沙上有人的脚印。(walking 表示同时发生的动作)

The question being discussed seems important. (=The question is being discussed. It seems important.) 正在讨论的问题似乎很重要。

The old days are gone. 旧时代一去不复返了。(gone 表示完成的状态)

I had my hair cut yesterday.  我昨天理发了。(cut 是及物动词的过去分词,表示“被人理发”。)

分词的否定形式是在分词短语前面加上not, never等否定词构成。

例如:

Not fearing the fire, the child touched and got a finger burnt. 小孩儿不知道怕火,用手去摸,把手指烫了。

Not knowing how to find the subway, I asked a policeman for help. 我不知道怎样找到地铁,就去找警察帮忙。

(一)现在分词和过去分词的区别

1)在语态上现在分词表示主动的意思,表示它所修饰的人或物的行为;及物动词的过去分词表示被动的意思,表示它所修饰的人或物是动作的承受者。换言之,现在分词是它修饰的成分所作出的动作,过去分词是它修饰的成分所承受的动作。

例如:

convincing facts 有说服力的事实 / convinced audience 被说服了的听众

the exploiting class 剥削阶级 / the exploited class被剥削阶级

a frightening dog一条让人害怕的狗 / a frightened dog一条被吓坏了的狗

driving gears主动齿轮 / driven gears从动齿轮

2)在时间上,现在分词往往表示动作正在进行,过去分词表示动作已完成。

例如:

the rising sun (正在升起的太阳) / the risen sun(升起的太阳)

the falling rain(正在下的雨)/ the fallen leaves(落下的树叶)

stolen money(被盗的钱/偷来的钱)/ill-gotten wealth(不义之财)

a high-flying kite(高飞的风筝)

再看一些例子:

boiling water 沸腾的水/boiled water 开水/developing countries 发展中国家/developed countries 发达国家/an exciting story 令人激动的故事/ excited people 激动的人们

2)在时间上,现在分词往往表示动作正在进行,过去分词表示动作已完成。

再看一些例子:

surprising news令人惊讶的消息/a surprised man受惊吓的人/an inspiring leader具有号召力的领袖/the inspired soldiers受到鼓舞的士兵/a delighted speech令人高兴的演说/the delighted audience(感到)高兴的听众/a moving film动人的电影/the moved children受到感到的孩子们/a box containing tea装茶叶的盒子/the tea contained in a box装在盒里的茶叶/ falling snow正在下的雪/fallen snow box落在地上的雪

3)做表语时的不同。现在分词做表语表示主语所具有的特征,意思是“令人如何”。过去分词多表示主语所处的状态,意思是“感到如何”。

例如:

His lecture is disappointingIm disappointed。他的演讲令人失望。我感到失望。

We are surprised to hear the newsThe news is surprising。我们听到那消息吃了一惊。那消息令人吃惊。

The situation is encouraging Were encouraged。形式使人鼓舞。我们感到鼓舞。

常用的还有:amusing/amusedastonishing/astonisheddisappointing/disappointedexciting/excitedfrightening/frightenedinteresting interestedmoving/moved  relaxing/relaxedsatisfying/satisfiedshocking/shockedsurprising/surprisedterrifying/terrifiedtiring/tiredworrying/worried等等。

4)做状语的区别,分词短语在句中可做时间、原因、方式、伴随状语。现在分词的动作和谓语动作同时或几乎同时发生、意思是主动的。而过去分词的动作在谓语动作之前发生、意思是被动的。

例如:

Seeing nobody at homeshe decided to leave them a note。看到没人在家,她决定给他们留个条。(主动意义,几乎同时)

The secretary worked late into the nightpreparing a speech for the president。秘书工作到晚上很晚,给总统准备一篇演说。(主动意义,同时)

Tired of the noisehe closed the window。对噪音感到厌烦,所以他把窗户关上。(被动意义,在谓语之前)

Deeply movedshe thanked me again and again。她深深地受了感动,再三谢我。(被动意义,在谓语之前)

Persuade by my mothershe gladly went there alone。在我母亲劝说下,她才高兴地独自去那里。(被动意义,在谓语之前)

如果现在分词的动作在谓语动作之前发生,现在分词要用完成形式,但意思仍然是主动的。

例如:

Having watered the vegetablesthey began to pick up the Apples=After they had watered the vegetablesthey began to pick up the apples。他们浇完了蔬菜之后就开始摘苹果。

Having finished the workhe packed his tools and left。完工后,他收拾起工具走了。

分词做状语时,前面可用连词或介词。

例如:

After eating my dinner quicklyI went to see Jim off。我赶快吃过晚饭就去给吉姆送行。

Though built before the Second World Warthe engine is still in good condition。尽管是在二战以前建的,这引擎仍然处于良好状态。

Unless paying by credit cardplease pay in cash。如果不用信用卡付款,请用现金付。

Tom will never do this unless compelled。汤姆永远也不会干这种事,除非被逼无奈。

Shes been quite different since coming back from America。从美国回来后,她大变了。

(二)用法

1.作定语。作定语的分词通常放在被修饰的名词之前。如果被修饰的词是somethinganythingeverythingnothing等,则分词放在这些词之后。分词短语通常放在被修饰的名词之后。

例如:

This is an interesting book(=This is a bookIt is interesting)这是一本有趣的书。

There is something interesting in the news(=There is something in the news It is interesting)消息中有些有趣的事。

The man sitting by the window is our math teacher(=The man who is sitting by the window is our math teacher)靠窗户坐着的那个人是我们的数学老师

The machine run by the old worker is made in Shanghai(=The machine that is run by the old worker is made in Shanghai)那位老工人开的机器是上海造的。

Most of students singing were girls(=Most of the students who were singing)唱歌的学生多数是女生。

Many of the villagers questioned refused to answer(=Many of the villagers who were questioned)被问的许多村里人都拒绝。

注意:(1)分词作定语与动名词作定语的区别:

分词和它所修饰的名词有逻辑上的主、谓关系。动名词则没有这种关系,而表示它所修饰的词的用途或有关动作。

现在分词和它所修饰的名词都要重读,动名词所修饰的名词则不必重读。

2)现在分词作定语时,它表示动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生(或差不多同时发生)

例如:

Who is the boy dancing over there?在那儿跳舞的少年是谁呀?

The girls swimming in the sea were in danger 在海里游泳的姑娘们有危险。

如果两个动作在时间上有先后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而往往用主从复合句结构。

例如:

The man who has gone to Shanghai will be back again。到上海去的那个人会回来的。

The teacher wants to talk to the students who smashed the windows。老师要找打破了窗子的那个学生谈话。

3be的现在分词being不能用作定语(可用作状语或被动语态中的助动词)。表示这种概念时,也用主从复合句结构。

例如:

He has a brother who is a worker。他有一个当工人的兄弟。

2、作状语。分词和分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、行为方式等意义。表示时间和原因的分词短语相当于对应的状语从句。

例如:

Seeing the teacher entering the roomthe students stood up(=When the students saw the teacher entering the roomThey stood up)学生们看见老师走进房间,都站了起来。 (时间)

Heatedthe Metal expands (=The metal expands if /when it is heated)金属受热而膨胀。(条件、时间)

Being excitedI couldnt go to sleep(=As I was excited I couldnt go to sleep)我兴奋得睡不着觉。(原因)

Being a studenthe was interested in sports(=As he was a studenthe was interested in sports)

他是个学生,所以对体育运动感兴趣。(原因)

Inspired by Dr.Yangs speechLi Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder(=As they were inspired by Dr.Yangs speechLi Hua and his classmates decided to study physics harder)李华和他的同学们受到杨博士讲话的鼓舞,决定更加努力学习物理。  (原因)

The children went away laughing=The children went awayThey laughed as they went。孩子们笑着走开了。(行为方式)

The professor stood theresurrounded by many students(=The professor stood thereHe was surrounded by many students)教授站在那里,许多学生围着他。(行为方式)

While reading the newspaperfather nodded from time to time(=While he was reading the newspaperfather nodded from time to time)看报时,父亲不时地点头。(时间)(分词前,可加表示时间的连词whilewhen)

3、作宾语补足语。

例如:

Can you get the machine going again?你能使机器再动起来吗?

You should have your hair cut。你该理发了。

I saw him coming last night。我昨天晚上看见他来了。

4、作表语。

例如:

The film is very moving。这部影片很感人。

Your homework is well done。你的作业做得好。

The visitors looked surprised.参观者看上去很惊讶。

The boys were seen walking on the grass。有人看见孩子们在草地上散步。

5、作句子独立成分(分词有自己的逻辑主语时,称为独立主格结构。)

例如:

Flags flyingthe army men marched in the streets。旗帜飘扬,军队在街上行进。

All his ribs brokenhe lay half dead。他的肋骨全部折断,半死不活地躺着。

分词(短语)作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。如果不一致,必须用独立主格结构来表示,也就是在分词前面加上它的逻辑主语。

My wife had a long talk with Sally, explaining why she didnt want the children to play together我妻子与莎莉谈了很长时间,解释她为什么不想让孩子们在一起玩。(现在分词explaining是句子主语my wife做的动作,它们之间是主动关系)

Given more attentionthe trees could have grown better。如果对这些树多关心一些,它们本来会长得更好。(过去分词given表示的动作是句子主语the trees承受的动作,它们之间是被动关系)

We explored the cavesPeter acting as guide。我们到那山洞探险,彼得做向导。 (独立主格)

The train having gonewe had to wait another day。分词短语做状语时,前面可以加上连词或介词,但是分词短语和句子之间不能用并列连词(butand),因为并列连词接的是两个并列成分,而分词短语只是全句的一个状语部分。分词和主句之间可用逗号。

例如:

误:Having been told many timesbut he still couldnt understand it

正:He was told many times, but he still couldnt understand it

注意:1)分词作状语时,逻辑主语即句子的主语;否则要用从句或独立主格结构来表示。

例如:

Looking out of the windowI saw lots of people there(=When I looked out of the windowI saw lots of people there)

我往窗外一看,看见那儿有许多人。  (looking out of the window的逻辑主语,就是句子的主语I)

2)在seehearwatchnotice等动词后,用动词不定式作宾语补语,通常表示(强调)动作从开始到结束的全过程。如果用现在分词作宾语补语,则通常表示动作正在进行。

例如:

We sat two hours and watched the teacher make the experiment。我们坐了两个小时,看老师做实验。(两小时一直在看老师做实验)

We passed by the classroom and saw the teacher making the experiment。我们走过教室,看见老师在做实验。(只是在走过教宰的一刹那间,看见老师正存做实验)

I saw him enter the room, unlock a drawer, take out a document, photograph it and put it back。我看见他走进房间,打开抽屉,拿出一份文件,拍了照又放回去(表示一个接一个的一系列动作的全过程时,用动词不定式。

I noticed them sitting in the corner and talking about something secret。我注意到他们坐在角落里在谈论什么秘密事儿。 (表示几个同时正在进行的动作,用现在分词)

3)在“have+宾语+分词”的结构中,用现在分词或过去分词表示的意义不同。在“have+宾语+现在分词”的结构中,现在分词所表示的动作往往是主体让(叫、使、听任、允许)客体做的,或使客体保持或处于某种状态。

例如:

He had the fire burning day and night。他让火日夜燃烧着。

Father had me swimming the whole summer vacation。父亲让我整个署假天天游泳。

在“have(get)+宾语+过去分词”的结构中,过去分词所表示的动作往往是别人做的或与主体的意志无关。

例如:

Mary had her dress washed。玛丽叫别人洗了她的衣服。(衣服是被洗)

had his legs broken。他的腿骨折断了。(表示与主体意志无关的客观遭遇)

I had my watch stolen yesterday。昨天我的表被人偷了。(表是被偷)

They had Jack beaten。他们叫人打了杰克。(Jack是被打)

4)分词作表语时,现在分词有“主动”、“进行”、“使”等意义;过去分词有“被动”、“完成”“受”、“感到…”等意义。

例如:

The story is interesting。这个故事很有意思。(故事使人感兴趣)

He is interested in dancing。他对舞蹈感兴趣。

5)谓语动词的现在进行时和作表语的现在分词形式相同;被动语态动词谓语和作表语的过去分词形式相同,但两者的意思不一样。

试比较:

They are moving their bed.他们正在搬床。  (are moving是谓语,表示主体的动作)

The story is very moving.这个故事很感人。  (moving是表语,表示主体的特征)

Her homework was done by her sister.她的作业是她姐姐做的。  (was done是谓语动词被动语态)

Her homework is well done.她的作业做得很好。( done是表语)

6generally speaking(一般地说),roughly speaking(粗略地说),strictly speaking(严格地说)等现在分词结构都是习惯用语,在句子中作插入语。

例如:

Generally speakinga footballer of 20 is better than one of 40

一般地说,二十岁的足球队员比四十岁的强。

7)分词短语的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,而独立结构的逻辑主语和句子的主语是不同的。

例如:

The last bus having gonewe had to walk home.

末班公共汽车已开走了,我们只好走路回家。

(三)分词的时态和语态

过去分词可以表示“被动”和“完成”等意义,因此没有时态和语态方面的形式变化。下面谈一下现在分词的时态和语态。

1.现在分词的完成式(having+过去分词)表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前或两个动作在时间上有一定的间隔。

例如:

Having written the letterJohn went to the post office.

(=After he had written the letterJohn went to the post office.

约翰写完信后,就去邮局了。

Having lived in Beijing for yearsLao Wang knows the city quite well.

(=As he has lived in Beijing for yearsLao Wang knows the city quite well.)

老王在北京住了多年,所以对这个城市很熟悉。

Having drunk two glasses of water, Xiao Ma felt a little better.

(=After he had drunk two glasses of water Xiao Ma felt a little better.)

小马喝了两杯水,感觉好一些了

一般式和完成式现在分词都可以表示先后接连发生的动作。在可能引起误解的场合应该用完成式现在分词表示先发生的动作。

例如:

Opening the drawerhe took out his wallet.

(=He opened the drawer and took out his wallet.)

他打开抽屉,拿出钱包。

Coming into the roomhe put down his bag.

(=he came into the room and put down his bag.)

他走进房间,放下提包。

Having brushed his teethMr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast.

布朗先生刷过牙,就下楼来吃早饭。

(此句如写成:Brushing his teeth, Mr. Brown came downstairs for breakfast.可能指“边刷牙,边下楼’。)

2.现在分词的被动语态(being +过去分词)通常表示“正在被…”的意思。如强调现在分词表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前时,可用现在分词被动语态的完成式(having + been +过去分词)

    例如:

The bridge being built will be completed next month.正在修建的那座桥将于下月完成。

Having been kept out of the room about half an hour for his returning lateTom was let in.汤姆回来晚了,所以被关在门外半小时左右才让他进去。

五、独立主格结构

独立主格结构由名词或代词加上其他成分(分词、不定式、名词、代词、形容词、副词或介词短语)构成。

独立主格结构没有主语和谓语,所以在语法上不是句子。但多有名词或代词表示的逻辑主语,分词或不定式表示的逻辑谓语,有时还有其他修饰成分。(判断一个结构是否是句子的标准就是看看这个结构是否有谓语动词。)这种结构通常在句子中起方式、时间、原因、条件等状语或状语从句的作用,主要用于书面语。使用动词非谓语形式的独立主格结构可以改为句子形式(从句):独立主格结构加上连词,非谓语动词改为谓语动词形式,这样就成为从句了。

例如:

Today being Sunday, the library isn\" t open.今天星期天,图书馆不开放。

(原因)改为从句:

As (Since) today is Sunday, the library isn\" t open.

例如:

There being no buseswe had to take a taxi. 没有汽车了,我们只好坐出租车了。

Because there were no buses, we had to take a taxi.

The signal giventhe bus started.信号发出后,公共汽车就启动了。

(时间)改为从句:

After the signal was given, the bus started.

The boy followed that man hereand climbed insword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。

The boy followed that man hereand climbed inand had a sword in his hand.

The mid-term examination is over, the end-of-term examination to come two months later.期中考试结束了,两个月之后进行期末考试.

The mid-term examination is over, and the end-of-term examination is to come two months later.

Weather permitting, we\" 11 visit the Great Wall.如果天气允许的话,我们就去参观长城。

If weather permits, we\" 11 visit the Great Wall.

The boy followed that man here, and climbed in, sword in hand.少年跟那个人到这里,并爬了进来,手里拿着剑。(伴随状语)

上文例句中sword in hand是由“名词+介词短语”构成,表示伴随的情况。这种表示伴随情的独立主格结构,有时可以用with

引出,二者的意思是一样的,with结构更加口语话,更加常用。

She left the office with tears in her eyes.她眼里含着泪水,离开了办公室。

The teacher walked into the classroom, with a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.老师胳膊底下挟着一把尺子,手里拿着几本书,走进了教室。

The teacher walked into the classroom. He was holding a ruler under his arm and some books in his hand.

Tian\" anmen Square looks magnificent with all the lights on.华灯齐放,天安门广场显得美丽动人。

With the boy leading the way, we found his house with no difficulty.由这孩子领路,我们毫不费劲地找到他的家。

With him to give us a lead, our team is bound to turn out well.有他给我们带头,我们对一定能搞好。

1、指出下列句子中的独立主格结构:

1) My work having been finished, I went home.

---My work having been finished

2)The woman sat smiling, surrounded by her flowers, a faraway look in her eyes.

      ---A faraway look in her eyes

3) My watch having been lost, I didn\" t know what time it was.

      ---My watch having been lost

4) He came into the room, his face red with cold.

      --- his face red with cold

5) There an elderly patient was sitting in her wheelchair alone, head bowed, her back to most of the others.

      --- Head bowed. her back to mast of the others

6) A man came in, his face hidden by an upturned coat collar and a cap pulled law over his brow.

      --- His face hidden by an upturned…….

2   用独立主格结构改正下列句子:

1) Being cold, he put on his overcoat.

---It being cold,

2) Being no bus, we had to walk home.

  --- There being no bus, ...

3) Getting colder, same birds are flying away to the south.

  --- It getting colder, ...

4) Being ill, Mr. Li taught the lesson in place of Mr. Wang.

  --- Mr. Wang being ill, Mr. Li taught..

5) Asia is the largest continent, being about 43 million square kilometer.

  ---…,its size (area) being about 43.

3   用独立主格结构将括号内的汉语译成英语填空:

1)Bing Bing entered the room, _____ (手里拿着一个大苹果).

---- (with) a big apple in his hand.

2)  _____(下课了)the children ran out of the class room.

            ---The class being over

3 The little girl waited at the bus stop for a long time, _____(鼻子冻得通红).

            ---her nose red with cold

4)  Here comes the Shanghai train, _____ (从福州来的火车)

            ---the Fuzhou train to come half an hour later.

5)  He was doing his homework._____ (他的父亲坐在旁边)

6)  ____(谁也没有什么可说的), the meeting was closed.

            -----Nobody having any more to say.

六、一致关系

英语的一致有三种:主谓一致,代词一致,肯定与否定一致

(一)主语与谓语的一致

英语语法要求,主语如果是单数,谓语动词也要用单数形式;主语若是复数,谓语动词也要用复数形式

例如:

She likes to eat well.她好吃

We all like good food.我们都喜欢好饭菜。

Everybody was happy with the decision. 人人都对这个决定感到高兴。

I am a doctor.我是个医生。

(二)概念一致

1. And连接的两个或多个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式

His opinion and mine are different他的观点和我的是不同的。

Bob and Peter are deadly rivals. Bobpeter是死对头。

What she says and what she does are totally different. 她说的和做的完全不同。

但是如果and连接的是指一个单一概念时,谓语动词用单数。

Bread and milk has been my breakfast for years. 牛奶面包多年来一直是我的早餐。

Her lawyer and old friend is going to marry her.她的律师和老朋友要娶她。

All this effort and sacrifice has come to nothing. 所有这些努力和牺牲都白费了。

and连接的单数主语分别有many aever yeachno修饰时,动词用单数。

如:During the holidays, every train and every plane was crowded.假期期间每列火车及每架飞机都非常拥挤。

No boy and no girl has the right to refuse education. 男孩和女孩都没有拒绝教育的权利。

Man a man and man a woman was moved b this picture。许多男男女女都被这幅画感动。

2.如果主语是一个抽象概念(如不定式、动名词、主语从句等)谓语动词用单数形式。如果主语是用and连接的两个或多个抽象概念,谓语动词用复数形式。

如:Swimming jogging and cycling are all goad farms of sports exercises.游泳、慢跑和骑自行车都是很好的运动形式。

To live to eat is not a very goad attitude toward life. 活着就是为了吃不是好的生活态度。

To live to eat and to eat to live are very different attitudes toward life.

whatwhowhyhaw, whetherwh一词引起的从句做主语时,谓语动词通常用单数;and连接的两个主句如果指两件事,动词用复数。

例如:What he is doing is not clear yet他在干什么还不清楚

What he is doing and whether I know him are two different things.他在干什么和我是否认识他是两件不同的事。

What she told me is none of your business. 她和我说的什么用不着你管。

What she told me and what she told you are totally different things.

what从句为主语的“主一系一表SVC"句型中,如果主句的表语是复数,主句谓语动词用复数形式;what从句本身是复数意义,主句谓语动词也可用复数。

如:What I need buy now are four tea cups and a pair of sports shoes.

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