初中英语语法总复习|初中英语零基础知识点


零基础英语 2020-09-23 22:11:19 零基础英语
[摘要]word media image1 png零基础英语道勤文化学校 编写目录第一章 词类及基本句型 3第二章 名词 3第三章 一般时态 5第四章 代词 7第五章 数词 10[db:cate]

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零基础英语

道勤文化学校 编写

目录

第一章 词类及基本句型 3

第二章 名词 3

第三章 一般时态 5

第四章 代词 7

第五章 数词 10

第六章 常用其它时态 14

第七章 感叹句 16

第八章 形容词、副词比较级和最高级 18

第九章 冠词 21

第十章 反义疑问句 26

第十一章 主谓一致 29

第十二章 介词 32

第十三章 定语从句 36

第十四章 状语从句 39

第一章 词类及基本句型

一、词类

名词:表示人、食物或抽象概念的名称

动词:表示动作或状态(及物动词和不及物动词)

形容词:修饰名词、代词。“……

副词:修饰动词、形容词。“……

二、基本句型

基本句型一:主语+谓语(不及物动词)

基本句型二:主语+谓语(及物动词)+ 宾语

基本句型三:主语+系动词+表语

基本句型四:主语+谓语+直接宾语+间接宾语

基本句型五:主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

基本句型六:There be 句型

三、练习判断下列句子属于那种句型


1. He made the boy laugh.

2. Tom’s mother sounded worried.

3. My father often reads newspaper after supper.

4. We gave them some money.

5. Mr Johnson taught us German last year.

6. All of us considered him honest.

7. Classes begin at eight every day.

8. The report sounds interesting.

9. Would you please pass me the dictionary?

10. The pain made him cry out.

11. You should study hard.

12. Her job is to look after the children in the

hospital.

13. They push the door open.


第二章 名词

word/media/image2.pngword/media/image3.png一、名词的分类及数

1)名词 普通名词 可数名词

不可数名词

专有名词 表人、地方、机构、事物、组织的专用名称

2)名词变复数的规则

3)特殊的名词变复数

4)单复数相同

fish chicken fruit deer sheep means(方式) Swiss(瑞士人) Chinese Japanese works(工厂)crossroads(十字路口)head(牲畜数量

5)名词形式上是单数,意义上是复数

cattle 牛(总称)、people 人民、police 警察、staff 全体员工

6)学科类名词,形式上是复数,意义上是单数

politics 政治; physics 物理; maths 数学

7)不可数名词

常见易错:advice建议; furniture家具; equipment设备;fun乐趣;information信息;paper纸;work工作;progress进步;traffic交通;housework家务劳动;wealth财富。

8)有些名词既可做可数又可做不可数

. 名词所有格

1)有生命的在词尾加“’s”;无生命的用“of +名词

2)双重所有格构成

a/an/this/that + 名词 + of +名词性物主代词/名词所有格

注意:of 前的名词一定要有a/an/this/that等限定词

of前的名词不能是专有名词

of 后的名词必须是特定的指认的名词

如:these books of my friend’s

a friend of my father’s

a friend of mine

三、练习

1. This is ___ reading-room.

A. the teacher’s B. teacher’s C. teacher’s D. the teachers’

2. Nothing was found but ___ broken.

A. the room window B. the room’s window

C. the room of the window D. the window of room

3. How many___ would you like?

A. paper B. bread C. pieces of papers D. pieces of bread

4. Please get me a new ___ when you go to town.

A. clothes B. dress C. clothing D. trousers

5. There are 34___ doctors in the hospital.

A. woman B. women C. woman’s D. women’s

6. He is old , but he has ___to do every day.

A. a lot of work B. much works

C. lots of homeworks D. quite a lot of homeworks

7. There’re many ___ in my brother’s album.

A. leafs B. toys C. books D. stamps

8. Yesterday I went to the market and bought a lot of ___.

A. tomatoes B. potatos C. vegetable D. meats

13.Please remember to give the horse some tree ______.

A leafs B leaves C leaf D leave

14.The son asked his mother to buy _____ glasses for him.

A a type of B a pile of C a piece of D a pair of

15.There is a ______ of wood left on the ground.

A cup B piece C box D pair

16.---- What do you think of the _____ there? ------ They are very delicious.

A cakes B meat C rice D milk

9. Today is September 10th. It’s ______ Day. Let’s go and buy some flowers for our teachers.

A Teachers B Teachers’ C the Teachers’ D Teacher’s

10.----Where’s your father? ----- At ______.

A Mr Green’s B Mr Green C the Mr Green’s D Mr Greens

11. He found two ____ in the room.

A photos B heros C tomatos D potatos

12.This table is made of ______.

A many glass B glasses C some glasses D glass

第三章 一般时态

一、一般现在时

用法:表示经常性习惯性的动作或常存在的状态;客观真理

构成:主语+be动词(amisare+表语

主语(单三)+动词实义动词(s/es

时间状语:oftenusuallyeverydayweekmonth

二、一般过去时

用法:表示过去技经常或反复发生的动作或存在的状态

构成:主语+be动词(waswere+表语

主语+动词过去式

时间状语:yesterdayat that timelastweekmonthyear

三、一般将来时

用法:表示将要发生的事情或存在的事情

构成:主语+will/shall(第一人称)+动词原形

表示未经事先思考的意图,表明说话者的观点、主观意识

主语+be going to+动词原形

表示已经决定或安排要做的事,客观迹象表明必然或可能发生的事,表示自然现象

主语+be to+动词原形

表示计划中约定的或按职责、义务必须去做或即将发生的动作

主语+ be about to+动词原形(常与when连用)

表示主观要做的事,常与when连用

四、时态练习

1.----Nancy is not coming to the party tonight. -----But she _____ me she’d love to.

A tells B told C will tell D is going to tell

2. If I find his telephone numberI ______ you.

A tell B told C is telling D will tell

3.Jim ___ to work in his home after he graduated from university.

A goes B went C will go D have gone

4.Keep practicing and you _____ your English.

A improve B will improve C improving D improves

5.-----When ____ Jim _____ to New York? -----Yesterday

A does; get B did; get C will; get D has; got

6.Teacher told us the earth ______ around the sun.

A travelled B travels C will travel D travelling

7. ----Ann is in hospital. ---- I ____ , I _____ her.

A didn’t know; will see B knows; will see C knows ; sees D didn’t know; saw

第四章 代词

一、人称代词的用法

1.人称代词的人称、数和格。

2.人称代词有主格和宾格之分。

如:I like table tennis. (作主语) Do you know him?(作宾语)

3.人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。

如:---Whos is knocking at the door? ---It’s me.

4.人称代词在than之后与其他人或事物进行比较时,用主格和宾格都可以。

如:He is older than me. He is older than I am.

、物主代词的用法

1.表示所有关系的代词叫物主代词。

2. 形容词性物主代词的作用相当于形容词,可在句中作定语。

例如:Our teacher is coming to see us. This is her pencil-box.

注意:名词性物主代词的作用相当于名词,在句中可用作主语、宾语和表语。

Our school is here, and theirs is there.(作主语)
--- Is this English-book yours? (作表语)

--- No. Mine is in my bag.
I"ve already finished my homework.

Have you finished yours?(作宾语)

练习题:

1. This is not my pencil-box. _______ ( I ) is in the bag.

2. Trees are planted in ______ ( we ) country every year, which makes our country more and more beautiful.

3. ---Is that bike Miss Gao’s? ---Yes, it is ______(she) . Beautiful, isn’t it?

4. Help ______ (you) to some fruit, Jack.

5. ---Who taught your brother to surf ? ---Nobody. He learnt all by _______ (he).

6. Their English teacher is from America, but ______ (we) is from England.

7. Mary’s answer is different from ________ ( I ).

8. ---My watch keeps good time. What about _____ (you)? ---Mine? Oh, two minutes slow.

9. Sam is my brother. Do you like to play with ______ (he)?

10. Did you enjoy _______ (you), Mary and Kate?

反身代词的用法
英语中用来表示“……自己,等意义的代词称为反身代词。反身代词在句中作宾语,表语,同位语。

1. 作宾语,表示动作的承受者就是动作的发出者,主语和宾语。指同一个人或一些人。

He called himself a writer Would you please express yourself in English? 

2. 作表语。It doesn‘t matterI’ll be myself soonThe girl in the news is myself
3. 作主语或宾语的同位语,表示亲自或本人。

I myself washed the clothes=I washed the clothes myself. (作主语同位语)

You should ask the teacher himself.(作宾语同位语)

I -------- myself 我自己 you ---- yourself 你自己

he ------ himself 他自己 she ----- herself 她自己

it -------- itself 它自己 we ----- ourselves 我们自己

you ---- yourselves 你们自己 they ---- themselves 他们自己

常用短语

1. by oneself 单独的;独自的 2. enjoy oneself 玩的愉快

3. help oneself to … 自用 4. dress oneself 自己穿衣服

5. say to oneself 自言自语

6. teach oneself = learn by oneself 自学

四、指示代词的用法
指示代词包括:thisthatthesethose

1.thisthese指在时间或空间上较近的事物或人,

thatthose则指时间和空间上较远的事物或人,

:This is a pen and that is a pencil We are busy these days In those days the workers had a hard time

2. 有时thatthose指前面讲到过的事物,

this these则是指下面将要讲到的事物

:I had a cold. That"s why I didn"t come. What I want to say is this ;

Pronunciation is very important in learning English

3. 有时为了避免重复提到的名词,常可用thatthose代替

:Television sets made in Beijing are just as good as those made in Shanghai

4. this 在电话用语中代表自己,that 则代表对方。

:Hello! This is Mary. Is that Jack speaking?

五、疑问代词的用法

疑问代词有whowhomwhosewhatwhich等。疑问代词用于特殊疑问句中,一般在句首,并在句子中作为某一句子成分。

Who is going to come here tomorrow?(作主语) What is that? (作表语)

Whose umbrella is this? (作定语) Whom are you waiting for? (作宾语)

六、不定代词的用法
不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词,不定代词有:some, any many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either…在句中可作主语、表语、宾语和定语。

七、相互代词的用法
表示相互关系的代词叫做相互代词。相互代词有each other one another两种形 式。在当代英语中,each otherone another没有什么区别。相互代词可在句中作宾语,定语。作定语用时,相互代词用所有格形式。
We should learn from each other / one another. (宾语)
Do you often write to each other / one another? (宾语)
We often borrow each other"s / one another"s books. 定语
The students corrected each other"s / one another"s mistakes in their homework. (作定语)

八、练习题

1 These are ___books. Yours are over there.

A I B my C me D mine

2 —___ is she? — She is a teacher.

A What B How C Who D Where

3___ is wrong with my watch. It has stopped___.

A Something, working B Something, to work

C Any thing, working D Anything, to work

4 Mary, help ___to the bananas, please.

A you B your C yourself D yourselves

5 —___ do you go to school every day? — By bus.

A How B Why C When D Where

6 My skirt is___ popular than___.

A much, her B much, hers C more, her D more, hers

7 — Can you speak English? — Yes, but only___.

A few B a few C little D a little

8 Mr.Smith is an old friend of___.

A I B me C my D mine

9 “ ___do you hear from your parents?” “About once a month.”

A How long B How many C How often D How much

10 Mr Green wouldn"t say ___at the meeting.

A everything B nothing C anything D something

11 “Mum, Ann"s coming tonight. Let"s give her ___to eat.” “Good idea!”

A anything nice B nice anything C something nice D nice something

12 — When shall we meet, this evening or tomorrow evening? — I don"t mind. ___time is OK.

A Some B Neither C Either D Both

13 This is not her kite, but___.

A he‘s B him C he D his

14 Don"t worry, Mum! ___ news is good news. I"m sure daddy will come back soon.

A No B Many C Those D Two

第五章 数词

一、分类

1.基数词:表示数目多少

1)以下是最基本的基数词,学习者必须牢记:one(1), two(2), three(3), four(4), five(5), six(6), seven(7), eight(8), nine(9), ten(10), eleven(11), twelve(12), thirteen(13), fourteen(14), fifteen(15), sixteen(16), seventeen(17), eighteen(18), nineteen(19), twenty(20), thirty(30), forty(40), fifty(50), sixty(60), seventy(70), eighty(80), ninety(90), a hundred(100), a thousand(1000), a million(1000000), a billion (十亿)

221—99 的表示法。先说几十,再说,中间加连字号:twenty-one(21), thirty-six(36), forty-five(45), ninety-nine(99)等。(3101—999的表示法。先说几百,后接and,再加末尾两位数(或末位数)one hundred and one(101), five hundred and thirty(530), seventy hundred and eighty-nine(789)

31000 以上的基数词。先从右至左数,每三位数加一个逗号(即以此把数目分为若干段)。第一个逗号前的数为thousand(),第二个逗号前的数million(百万),第三个逗号前的数为billion(十亿),第四个逗号前的数为 trillion(万亿),然后一段一段地数

2.序数词:表示先后顺序。

1) 序数词第一、第二和第三为first, secondthird,其他序数词的构成是在基数词后加th

2) fifth(第五) eighth (第八) ninth (第九)twelfth (第十二)

3) 二十、三十等基数词变为序数词时,要把y变成ie再加-th

例如:  twenty→ twentieth forty→ fortieth

4) 基数词几十几变成序数词时,表示几十的数词不变,只把表示几的基数词变成序数词。 例如:  twenty-one→ twenty-first   forty-five→ forty-fifth

5) 第一百、第一千、第一百万、第十亿都是在基数词后直接加th构成。

例如:第一百→hundredth  第一千→thousandth

第一百万→millionth  第十亿→billionth

6)序数词的缩略是由阿拉伯数字加序数词的最后两个字母构成

例如:1st,2nd,3rd,4th,21st,32nd,40th

二、分数表达法

    分数由基数词和序数词合成。分子用基数词,分母用序数词。分子是1时,分母(序数词)用单数形式;分子大于1时,分母用复数形式,序数词加-s。读带分数时,先读整数部分,再读分数部分。 1/2→one half a half 1/4→one fourth one (a) quarter

3/4→three quarters three fourths 4/5→four fifths

2-1/3→two and a (one)third 3-5/6→three and five sixths

32-3/4→thirty-two and three quarters (three fourths)

三、小数表达法

    整数与小数之间用小数点隔开。读小数时,每位数字(特别是小数点后面的)要单独读出。小数点读作point(),零读作zero(naught)。如果整数是零,往往不读出。

    0.1→ zero(naught)point one point one

    0.03→zero(naught)point naught three zero point zero three

    2.25→two point two five 14.16→fourteen point one six

205.37→two hundred and five point three seven

四、百分数

    百分数用下面形式表示:

    5%→5.per cent(缩写:5.PC) 读作:five percent

    23%→23.per cent(缩写:23.PC) 读作:twenty-three percent

五、常见的数字符号和等式的读法

    = (等于号) 读作 equals + (加号) 读作 plusand

(减号) 读作minus × (乘号) 读作times multiplied by

    ÷ (除号)读作divided by

六、时刻表达法

    表示时刻有两种说法逆读法先分钟,后钟点顺读法先钟点,后分钟。

七、 日表达法

1)年份用基数词,日期用序数词

例如: 198851日可以写作 May 1(st),1988,读作May the first, nineteen  eighty-eight

或者1(st)May,1988,读作the first of May, nineteen eighty-eight

2)英语年份的读法:一般先读前两位数,再读后两位数。

例如:1983→nineteen eighty-three 1700→seventeen hundred 1870→eighteen seventy

1601→sixteen a onesixteen hundred and one   965→nine sixty-five nine six five

3)年代用年份的阿拉伯数字加-’s  -s表示

例如:十八世纪三十年代→1730’s/1730s the seventeen thirties

     二十世纪六十年代→1960’s/1960s the nineteen sixties

八十年代初期→the early eighties 九十年代末期→the late nineties

4)月份 一年12个月的英语写法如下

    一月→January 二月→February 三月→March 四月→April

    五月→May 六月→June 七月→July 八月→August 九月→September

十月→October 十一月→November 十二→December

八、电话号码及编号

 编号既可以用序数词,也可用基数词。

例如:the tenth lessonLesson Ten 第十课 the fiftieth page 

Page 50第五十页有的编号习惯上常用基数词。

例如:Room 321(读作three two one) 321号房间

Tel.No.4013586(读作Telephone number four 0 one three five eight six)

九、练习题

1. Lincoln was born on ________.

A. February 12, 1809  B. 1809, February 12   C. 1809, 12 February   D. February 1809,12

2. A _______ boy can sing the English song very well.

  A. ten-year-old    B. ten years old    C. ten-years-old    D. fifth years old

3. An hour later, ____ minister was sent to see the “magic cloth” worn by those two men.

A. two    B. the second     C. the two    D. second

4. Abraham Lincoln was ___ President of the United States.

  A. 16     B. the 16      C. 16th      D. the 16th

5. Do you think there is any room for us ________ ?

  A. two     B. the two      C. second      D. the second

6. How many students are there in your class? ________.

  A. Twenty nine    B. Thirty and two     C. Forty-five    D. fifties

7. Which number is wrong? _______.

  A. Ninety     B. Ninteen      C. Ninth      D. Nineteenth

8. The People"s Liberation Army was founded _______.

  A. on August 1, 1927   B. in 1927, 1 August  

C. on August 1st, 1927   D. in August 1, 1927

9. The number 4,123 is read _______.

A. four thousand one hundred and twenty-three 

B. four thousand and one hundred twenty-three

C. four thousand and a hundred and twenty-three 

D. four thousands a hundred and twenty-three

10. The old professor still works hard though he is _________.

  A. in his sixty    B. in his sixties    C. in sixties    D. in the sixty

11. This classroom is ________ ours.

  A. three times big as  B. as three times big as 

C. three times as big as  D. as big three times as

12. The basketball team of our school ranks ____ in the match.

  A. three     B. third      C. the three       D. the third

13. Which is the car that he drives? It"s ________.

A. fifty two    B. the fifty-two cars    C. the car fifty four     D. the fifty-fourth car

14. Which of the following is wrong? ________.

  A. He is a fifteen-year-old boy.        B. He is at the age of 15.

  C. He is a boy of 15.                D. He is fifteen year old.

15. Our school is not very big. There are only ________ students.

  A. nine hundreds of   B. nine hundred    C. nine hundreds     D. nine hundred of

16. How many new words are there in ________ lesson?    There are only _________.

  A. five; fifth    B. fifth; five    C. the fifth; the five    D. the fifth; five

17. ________, Coca-Cola began to enter China"s market.

  A. In 1970"s    B. In 1970s     C. In the 1970s"     D. In the 1970s

18. There was no bus in that small town. We had a ________.

  A. ten miles walk     B. ten-mile walk    C. ten mile"s walk     D. tenth mile walk

19. Today is the first day and ________.

  A. Tuesday is fourth  B. Thursday is the fourth 

C. second is Tuesday D. a second is Thursda

第六章 常用其它时态

一、现在进行时

1.用法:表示现阶段说话时正在进行的动作

2.构成:主语+ beamisare+ 动词-ing

3.时间状语:now, at this momentat presentlooklisten

二、过去进行时

1.用法:表示过去某一阶段说话时正在进行的动作

2.构成:主语+ bewaswere+ 动词-ing

3.时间状语:at that moment

三、将来进行时

1.用法:表示将来某一阶段说话时正在进行的动作

2.构成:主语+ will/shall+be + 动词-ing

四、现在完成时

1.用法:动作发生在过去对,强调对现在造成的影响和结果;动作从过去开始一直延续至今,并且还有可能持续下去。

2.构成:主语 + have/has + 动词过去分词

3.时间状语:alreadyyetforsince加时间、so farup to nowrecently(通常不与明确的过去时间状语连用)

五、过去完成时

1.用法:过去的过去

2.构成:主语 + had + 动词过去分词

3.时间状语:通常根据上下文来判断

六、过去将来时

1.用法:过去某一时间段打算要做某事

2.构成:主语 + would + 动词原形

七、习题

1I ______ a mistake. Please don"t be angry with me.

A. make B. made C. will make D. had made

2My brother left school in 2005, and since then he ____ in Beijing.

  A. lives B. lived C. will live D. has lived

3I ______ my clothes, and the phone rang.

A. wash B. washed C. am washing D. was washing

4---Where is Peter? ---- He ___ volleyball with his friends in the school gym.

A. plays B. played C. is playing D. has played

5He_____ his umbrella to me yesterday. so I didn"t get wet.

A. borrowed B. kept C. lent D. bought

6I"m sorry I left the book at home. I_ it here tomorrow, I promise.

 A. bring B. will bring C. brought D. have brought

7----What are you doing ,Simon?

----I have finished my homework , and now I ______ the computer games.

 A. played B. was playing C. am playing D. play

8My brother came back home while I ______homework.

A. am doing B. were doing C. was doing D. did

9----Did you watch the football match yesterday?

----Yes , I did. You know , my brother ______in the match.

 A. is playing B. was playing C. will play D. play

10---Where are the Greens ,may I ask?

  ---Well, they ______England. They have been there for nearly a week now.

A. have been to B. are going to C. have gone to

11---How was your day off ? --- Pretty good ! I ___ the science museum with my classmates.

A. visit B. visited C. am visiting D. will visit

12There ___ a big cake and many candies at the party yesterday.

  A. was B. were C. is D. are

13I _______ the charity show on TV when the telephone rang.

  A. watch B. watched C. am watching D. was watching

14Tom _______ the USA. He _______ back in two months.

  A. has gone to; comes B. has gone to; will be

C. has been to; comes D. has been to; will be

17---You have a nice watch. ---Thank you. I ______ it since I got married.

  A. had B. bought C. have had D. have bought

18Although this village isn"t big, all the other villages I____ so far are smaller.

  A. visited B. have visited C. would visit D. had visited

19---How long _____in Chengdu?

  ---For just the weekend to come. I"ll be back next Monday morning.

  A. are you staying B. did you stay C. have you stayed

20---Alice, would you mind not playing the guitar? I _____ on the phone. ---Oh, sorry ,mom.

A. talked B. talk C. have talked D. am talking

第七章 感叹句

一、概念

感叹句是用来表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情的句子,句末通常要用感叹号。通常由whathow和引导。(通常省略主语和谓语)

二、构成

1.what修饰名词或名词短语,有以下两种形式:

1 What +a(an)+(形容词)+单数可数名词+主语+谓语!

   What an apple this is!

2What+(形容词)+可数名词复数或不可数名词+主语+谓语!

   What kind women they are!

2.How引导的感叹句

结构:How+形容词(副词)+主语+谓语!  

How hard the worker are working!

3.whathow引导的感叹句,一般情况下可以相互转换,转换后意义不变。

  What an interesting story it is!==How interesting the story is!

  what a beautiful bulding it is!==How beautiful the building is!

 在口语中,感叹句的主语和谓语常常省略。如:

   What a nice present!(省略it is

How disappointed!(省略she is或其它可作本句主、谓的词语

总结:What + 名词/名词短语(+主语/谓语)

How + 形容词/副词(+主语/谓语)

三、练习题

1- __________good time we had at the party last night!

-Yes. It was ___exciting party that I would never forget it.

A. What, so B. How, such C. What a, such an D. How a, so an

2-_____ day it is! - Let’s go out and enjoy the sunshine!

A. What a lovely B. How windy C. What a rainy D. How lovely

3____ terrible weather we had last Sunday!

A. What B. What a C. Such D. How

4_______ useful the book is! We can know well about the city from it.

A. What B. What a C. How D. What an

5Look! _____ building the Bird Nest is!

A. What a great B. What great C. How a great D. How great

6 - - - ______ good news it is! The pandas are found alive after the earthquake.

- - - It’s so ______.

A. What a, excited B. What, exciting C. How a, excited D. How, exciting

7-____beautiful day! Shall we go for a picnic? - Good idea.

A. What B. How C. What a D. How a

8____ fun it is to be with girls of mu age in the summer course in Britain!

A. How B. What C. What a D. How a

9- _______ clever the girl is! - So she is.

A. How B. What C. What a D. How a

10___ nice hat it is!

A. How B. What C. What a D. How a

11______ interesting talk Mr. Black gave us!

A. How B. What a C. What an D. How an

12_____ music she is playing!

A. What nice B. How nice C. What a nice D. How nice a

13Mary got good grades in school. ___ excited she is!

A. What B. What a C. How D. How a

14What a funny person_______! We all like talking with him.

A. it is B. is he C. is it D. he is

15- we will build a subway in Fuzhou before 2014.

- Wow, _____Will it pass our place?

A. what an excited news B. how excited the news is

C. what exciting news D. how exciting news

16____ information he offered us! We all thank him.

A. What useful B. What useless C. How useful D. How useless

17____ dangerous it is to ride fast on a busy road.

A. What B. What a C. How D. How a

18-___ kind girl Nancy is - Yes, she is always ready to help others.

A. What B. What a C. How D. How a

19____ Mrs. Smith is!

A. How kind woman B. What a kind woman C. What kind woman D. How a kind woman

20___ it’s blowing!

A. What strong B. How strong C. How strongly D. What strongly

第八章 形容词、副词比较级和最高级

一、形容词、副词比较级和最高级的构成:

1. 单音节词和少数双音节词比较级和最高级的规则变化:

2. 其他双音节词或多音节词,在该词前面加-more/most

beautiful —more beautiful—(the) most beautiful

3. 由形容词加ly构成的双音节词和多音节词,都是在该词前加-more/most.

quickly more quickly—(the) most quickly

difficultly more difficultly—(the) most difficultly

4. 不规则变化:

二、形容词比较级和最高级的用法:

1. 原级的用法:

用于两者之间对比,意思为“……和……相同”as….+形容词原级+as B

2. 比较级的用法:

1A+形容词比较级+than+ B

形容词比较级前用much, even, still, a littlefar, a lot, a bit, much more修饰。

Very, so, too, quite 不能修饰比较级。

2)数字+形容词比较级+than

3)比较级+and+比较级,表示“越来越……”

4the +比较级,the +比较级结构,表示“越……就越……”

5which/who +is +比较级

3. 最高级用法:

用于三者及以上的人或事物的比较,最高级前加the,最高级前有物主代词,序数词和名词所有格时,不加定冠词,后面跟带inof表范围的短语。

one of the +最高级+名词复数,谓语动词用单数

三、副词比较级和最高级的用法:

1. 原级主要的句型:

1as+副词原级+as not as/so+副词原级+as 2too+副词原级+to do sth.

3so +副词原级+ that 4)副词原级+enough to do sth.

2. 比较级的用法:

1)比较级+than。当前后使用的动词相同时,通常用助动词来代替后面的动词,该动词或助动词可以省略。 例如:He works much harder than I (do).

2)比较级+and +比较级 越来越……

3the 比较级…the 比较级

3. 最高级的用法:

副词最高级前一般有the,也可省略。

四、练习题

1. You must write as ________ as you can.

A. more careful B. carefully C. careful D. care

2. —In our English study reading is more important than speaking, I think.

—I don’t agree with you. Speaking is ________ reading.

A. as important as B. so important as

C. the most important D. the same as

3. Jim is running ________ Bruce. They’re neck and neck.

A. faster than B. as fast as C. as faster as D. more slowly than

4. Lesson Three is ________ Lesson Two. It’s much more difficult.

A. not so easy as B. easier than

C. as difficult as D. less difficult than

5. This story is not ________ as that one.

A. more interesting B. less interesting

C. so interested D. so interesting

6. The boy doesn’t speak ________ his sister, but his written work is very good.

A. as well as B. so good as

C. more better than D. more worse than

7. Now Helen works ________ than before.

A. more carefully B. more careful

C. much careful D. much carefully

8. It takes___ time to go to Beijing by plane than by train.

A. more B. fewer C. longer D. less

9. It is ______ today than yesterday. Shall we go swimming this afternoon?

A. the hottest B. hot C. hottest D. hotter

10. The population of Shanghai is _____ than that of Shijiazhuang.

A. smaller B. larger C. less D. large

11. Of the two pencil-boxes, the boy chose _______ one.

A. less expensive B. the least expensive

C. the less expensive D. the most expensive

12. Of the two Australian students, Masha is ________ one. I think you can find her easily.

A. tallest B. the taller C. taller D. the tallest

20. This street is much ________ than that one.

A. straight B. straighter

C. straightest D. more straighter

21. 30,000 dollars is a large amount of money, but it’s ________ than we need.

A. far more B. very much C. far less D. very little

22. Jack is a little ________ than Peter.

A. strong B. stronger C. strongest D. the strongest

23. In our city, it’s __ in July, but it’s even __ in August.

A. hotter; hottest B. hot; hot

C. hotter; hot D. hot; hotter

24.In the exam, the ____ you are, the _____ mistakes you’ll make.

A. careful; little B. more careful; less

C. more careful; few D. more careful; fewer

24.In the exam, the ____ you are, the _____ mistakes you’ll make.

A. careful; little B. more careful; less

C. more careful; few D. more careful; fewer

25. The more you learn, the more ___ you can get a job.

A. easily B. easier C. easy D. easiest

26. ___children there are in a family, __ their life will be.

A. The less; the better B. The fewer; the better

C. Fewer; richer D. More; poorer

27.—I will give you some picture books. —The __,the _.

A. more; better B. many; better

C. most; best D. much; better

28. Which would you like _____, basketball or football?

A. good B. better C. best D. well

第九章 冠词

一、概念及分类

冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。冠词可以说是名词的一种标志,它不能离开名词而独立存在。表示的主语数量或者特征。冠词分为不定冠词"aan"、定冠词"the"和零冠词三种,零冠词指的是不用冠词的情况。不定冠词表示泛指,定冠词表示特指。

二、不定冠词

不定冠词有"aan"两种形式。"a"用在以辅音开头的词前,"an"用在以元音开头的词前。判断一个词是以元音开头还是以辅音开头,是根据读音而不是根据字母。

 1. 用于可数名词的单数形式前,表示"" There is a tiger in the zoo.

 2. 表示一类人和东西 A tiger can be dangerous.

 3. 表示"某一个"的意思 A gentleman wants to see you.

 4. 表示"同一"的意思 The two shirts are much of a size.

 5. 表示"每一"的意思 We go swimming four times a week.

 6. 用在作表语的单数可数名词前,表示身份、职业 My mother is a teacher.

 7. 第一次提到的人或事物,但不特别指明是哪一个

   Long long ago there was an old king who had a very beautiful daughter.

 8. such aquite a句式中 He is quite a good actor. Don"t be in such a hurry.

 9. 在感叹句 what...的句式中 What a pretty girl she is!

 11. 用在某些表示数量的词组中:

a lot of / a couple of / a great many / a dozen也可以用 one dozen/ a great deal of

三、定冠词

1.特指某()人或某()物,这是定冠词的基本用法 Beijing is the capital of China.

2.指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。 Open the window please.

3.指上文已经提到的人或事物(第一次提到用“aan”,以后再次提到用“the”

On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms.

4.指世界上独一无二的事物。

the sun 太阳 the moon 月亮 the earth 地球 the sky 天空the world 世界

5.用在序数词、形容词最高级前。

The first truck is carrying a few baskets. 第一辆卡车装运一些筐。

表示两者间……的一个时用定冠词

The older of the two noblemen took a light. He is the taller of the two boys.

6.用在由普通名词构成的专有名词前。

the Great wall长城,the Summer Palace颐和园,

the People’s Farm人民农场,the Science Museum科学馆

7. the加单数可数名词可以表示一类人或事物

The horse is a useful animal. 马是一种有用的动物。

注意:像这类句子还有如下两种写法

A horse is a useful animal. 或者Horses are useful animals.

8. 用在某些形容词前,表示某一类人。

the rich富人 the poor穷人 the sick病人 the old老人, the young年轻人 the blind盲人 the dead死人

9. 用在姓氏复数形式前,表示全家人夫妇俩 The Turners are going home on a train.

10. 表示演奏乐器时,乐器的前面要加the

play the piano 弹钢琴 play the violin 拉小提琴

*中国乐器名词前不与冠词连用:play erhu(二胡)]

The + n.{发明物} 必须是单数 who invented the telephone?

11. 用在表示海洋、河流、山脉、群岛及国家和党派名词前。

the East China Sea 东海 the Huai River 淮河

the Jinggang Mountains 井冈山 the United States of American 美国

the working class 工人阶级 the Chinese Communist Party 中国共产党

13. 在句型动词+sb.+介词+the+身体某一部位中要用 the,而不用人称代词。

take sb. by the arm 抓住某人的手臂 hit sb. in the face 打某人的脸

be red in the face 脸红 be lame in the right leg 右腿瘸 等结构中,名词前要用the

14. 用在某些固定词组中。

all the same 仍然 all the time 一直

all the year round 一年到头 at the age of ……岁时

at the beginning of 起初; 开始 at the end of ……的尽头/末尾

at the entrance of ……门口 at the foot of ……脚下

at the head of ……的前面 at the moment 此刻

at the same time 同时 by the side of ……附近

by the time 到时候 by the way 顺便说

catch the post 赶上邮班 do the shopping/washing 买东西/洗衣服

give...the message 捎口信给…… go to the classroom 去教室

in the end 最后;终于 in the hat 戴帽子的

in the middle of the day 中午 in the morning/afternoon / evening 在上午/下午/晚上

in the open air 在户外在野外 jump the queue 不按次序排队

lead the way to 引路指路 look the same 看起来很像

on the earth 在地球上 tell the truth 说实话

the day after tomorrow 后天 the day before yesterday 前天

the high jump/ jump 跳高/; the next day/year 第二天/下一年

the people 人民; the starting line起跑线

三、冠词

1.在专有名词和不可数名词前。 I’m going to England next week for a holiday.

2.可数名词前已有作定语的物主代词my, your, his, her等;指示代词this/ these, that/those; 不定代词some, any等及所有格限制时。 The letter is in her pocket.

3.复数名词表示一类人或事物时。 My father and mother are teachers.

4.在星期、月份、季节、节日前。

The best time to come to China is in spring or autumn.

Today is Thursday, September 10th, Teacher’s Day.

[注意] 如果月份、季节等被一个限定性定语修饰,则要加定冠词。

He joined the Army in the spring of 1982.

我国的节日前用定冠词

the Spring Festival春节 the Mid-Autumn Festival中秋节

5.在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前。 Happy Teachers’ Day! Here it is, Mom!

6.在学科名称、三餐饭和球类运动名称前。

I think Chinese is more popular than any other subject.

Can you play basketball? We are going to play football.

7.某些固定词组中不用冠词。

by连用的交通工具名称前 by bus, by car, by bike, by train, by air/plane, by sea/ship

名词词组 day and night日日夜夜, here and there 到处

介词词组at home在家in surprise惊奇地at noon在中午on foot步行at night在晚上on duty值日at work在工作on timefor example例如on business经商in school在上学on holiday在度假 in class在上课on show展览in hospital在住院on top of……顶部 in bed在床上

④ go短语 go home回家 go to bed上床睡觉 go to school去上学 go to work去上班 go shopping/swimming/boating/fishing去买东西/游泳/划船/钓鱼

四、介词短语中有无冠词区别

. 当下列名词指其主要目的,即与其相关在行为时,要用零冠词。

 at table 在进餐 at the table 在桌子旁边

 at desk 在读书 at the desk 在课桌旁

 at school 在上学 at the school 在学校里

  in class 在上课 in the class 在班级里面

  in bed 卧床 in the bed 在床上

  in prison 坐牢 in the prison (因事)在监狱

  in hospital 住院 in the hospital (因事)在医院

  go to school 去上学 go to the school (因事)去学校

  go to bed 上床睡觉 go to the bed 在床上

  go to hospital 去看病 go to the hospital 去医院

  take place 发生 take the place 代替

  in place of 代替 in the place of ...的地方

  in case of 万一 in the case of ...来说

  out of question 毫无疑问 out of the question 完全不可能

  二. 通常使用不定冠词的短语

  after a while 过了一会儿all of a sudden 突然as a rule 通常as a result 结果,因此

as a matter of fact 事实上as a whole 大体上at a loss 不知所措in a hurry 急忙

in a way 在某种程度上in a word 总而言之It’s a pity that… 令人遗憾的是put an end to… 结束come to an end 结束come to a conclusion 得出结论have a good time 玩得愉快have a rest 休息一下have a cold 感冒have a word with 谈一谈keep an eye for 有鉴赏力make a living 谋生make a fire 生火make a fool of 愚弄take a walk 散步

五、练习题

1. If you work hard at English, you’ll get ______ “A” in the test.

A an B / C the D a

2. Bob is ______ eleven—year—old boy, but he knows a lot about history.

A an B a C the D /

3. It takes us ______ hour to go to my hometown by bus

A an B a C the D /

4. What _____ interesting book it is !

A an B a C the D /

5. You look in high spirit. You must have ______ during your holiday.

A.  wonderful time B. a wonderful time

C. the wonderful time D. some wonderful time

6. ______ rich used to look down upon ______ poor.

A The,/ B A, the C The, a D The, the

7. ______Greens were having breakfast at seven this morning.

A an B a C the D /

8. Could you play ______ piano for me while I’m singing?

A an B a C the D /

9. Our teacher told us that _____ moon moves around ____ earth.

A a, a B the , the C a, an D the, a

10. Beijing is _____ capital of _____Pepole’s Republic of _____ China.

A a, the, the B the, the, / C the, the, the D the, a, the

11. He usually goes to school on _____ foot.

A an B a C the D /

12. These boys play ______ football after class.

A an B a C the D /

13. ----Have you had _____ breakfast yet? ----No, not yet.

A an B a C the D /

14. ______March is the third month of the year.

A an B a C the D /

15. The old man was ill in _____ hospital.

A an B a C the D /

16. —John has put forward _____ most challenging question for us to answer.      

—Yes, it really is. I have never heard _______ harder one.

A. the; 不填        B. 不填; the C. the; the      D. a; a

17. I know _____ John Lennon, but not ____ famous one.

A. /; a B. a; the C. /; the D. the; a

18. We can see _______ full moon on the evening of ____August 15th every year.

A. the; / B. a; a C. a; the D. the; the

19. —— Is ___ English-Chinese dictionary on the desk yours?

—— No, I don’t have ___ English-Chinese dictionary. I use English-English dictionaries.

A. an, an B. an, the C. the, an D. the, the

20. Peter likes playing ___ football very much, but he doesn’t like ___ football I bought for him on his birthday.

A. the, the B. /, / C. the, / D. /, the

21. You will find ______ girl in red. She is ____ teacher.

A the; a B the; / C a; / D a; the

22. Before I talked with ______ scientist, I had never met ______ clever person like him.

A the; a B the; the C a; a D a; the

23. ___ Autumn is ___ best season of the year in Beijing.

A The, the B An, the C The, a D /, the

24.—May I have a look at ____ book tonight?

—Of course, you can. I have ____ old one at home.

A. the; a B. a; the C. the; an D. the; the

25. —May I have a look at the MP4 sir?

—Which one? _______ black one?

A. A B. An C. The D.不填

第十章 反义疑问句

一、概念

反义疑问句即附加疑问句。它表示提问人的看法,没有把握,需要对方证实。 反义疑问句由两部分组成:前一部分是一个陈述句,后一部分是一个简短的疑问句,两部分的人称时态应保持一致。

二、 句子结构

1陈述部分肯定式+疑问部分否定式可记为前肯后否定. They work hard, don’t they?

2陈述部分否定式+疑问部分肯定式可记为前否后肯定. You didn"t go, did you?

3)附加问句和陈述句人称、时态一致(相应时态的助动词的肯定/否定形式+人称代词)

三、反义疑问句的回答

对反意疑问句的回答,无论问题的提法如何,如果事实是肯定的,就用yes,事实是否定的,就要用no。要特别注意陈述句部分是否定结构,反意疑问句部分用肯定式提问时,回答yesno与汉语正好相反。这种省略回答的yes要译成no要译成

---He likes playing football, doesn’t he? 他喜欢踢足球,是吗?

---Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t. 是的。/ 不是。

---His sister didn’t attend the meeting, did she? 他妹妹没有参加会议,是吗?

---Yes, she did. / No, she didn’t. 不,她参加了。/ 是的,她没参加。

四、特殊用法

1) 陈述部分的主语是I,疑问部分要用 aren"t I.

I"m as tall as your sisteraren"t I?

2) 陈述部分的谓语是wish,疑问部分要用may +主语。

I wish to have a word with you, may I?

3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。 The Swede made no answer, did he / she? Some plants never blown (开花), do they ?

4) 含有ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn"t / oughtn"t +主语。

He ought to know what to do, oughtn"t he? / shouldn"t he?

5) 陈述部分有have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用don"t +主语(didn"t +主语)。

We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don"t we?

6) 陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑问部分用didn"t +主语或 usedn"t +主语。

He used to take pictures there, didn"t he? / usedn"t he?

7) 陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问句部分用hadn"t you?

You"d better read it by yourself, hadn"t you?

8) 陈述部分有would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn"t +主语。

He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn"t he?

9) 陈述部分有You"d like to +v. 疑问部分用wouldn"t +主语。

You"d like to go with me, wouldn"t you?

10) 陈述部分有must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。

He must be a doctor, isn"t he?

You must have studied English for three years, haven"t you? / didn"t you?

He must have finished it yesterday, didn"t he?

11) 感叹句中,疑问部分用be +主语。

What colors, aren"t they? What a smell, isn"t it?

12) 陈述部分由neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。

Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?

13) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用it

Everything is ready, isn"t it?

14) 陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:

a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。

Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn"t he?

b. 带有定语从句宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定:

He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he? He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn"t he?

c. 上述部分主句谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引导的定语从句,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。

I don"t think he is bright, is he? We believe she can do it better, can"t she?

15) 陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑问部分常用复数they,有时也用单数he

Everyone knows the answer, don"t they? (does he?) Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?)

16) 情态动词dareneed的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。

We need not do it again, need we ? He dare not say so, dare you?

dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词do + 主语。

She doesn"t dare to go home alone, does she?

17) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用will you

Don"t do that again, will you? Go with me, will you / won"t you ?

注意: Let"s 开头的祈使句,后用shall we?

Let us 开头的祈使句,后用will you?

Let"s go and listen to the music, shall we? Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ?

18) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用there省略主语代词。

There is something wrong with your watch, isn"t there?

There will not be any trouble, will there?

19) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。

It is impossible, isn"t it? He is not unkind to his classmates, is he?

五、练习题

1. I don"t think that the necklace is made of diamond, ________?

A do I B do you C isn"t it D is it

2. His wife had the carpets and the curtains cleaned, ________?

A hadn"t B had C didn"t she D did she

3. It"s my son"s wedding next week, and I have to do my best for that,_______ ?

A haven"t I B don"t I C don"t he D isn"t it

4. Harry wouldn"t become a teacher if it hadn"t been for the holiday, ______ ?

A would he B had it C would it D had he

5. No one left here yesterday, ________?

A didn"t they B did they C didn"t one D did one

6. Birds rarely build nests in our garden,________?

A don"t they B do they C didn"t they D did they

7. You must have been to the Great Wall,____________?

A mustn"t you B haven"t you C aren"t you D must you

8. learning how to repair motors takes a long time,________?

A doesn"t it B don"t they C does it D do they

9. They must have stayed at home last night,________?

A mustn"t they B haven"t they C didn"t they D must they

10. I feel like going to the cinema tonight,________?

A don"t I B don"t you C do I D do you

11. Let"s start out early tomorrow morning,________?

A shall we B will you C do you D can"t you

12. There"s not much news in today"s newspaper,________?

A isn"t it B is it C isn"t there D is there

13. They need our help badly at the moment,_____?

A needn"t they B need they C don"t they D do they

14. She is unfit for the position,________?

A is she B isn"t she C doesn"t she D does she

15. I wish to visit America,________?

A don"t I B can I C may I D may you

16. She"s been a worker here for many years,________?

A isn"t she B is she C hasn"t she D has she

17. What beautiful flowers,________?

A aren"t they B are they C isn"t it D is it

18. Mother used to live in a poor village,____________?

A used she B usedn"t she C didn"t he D did he

19. You"d better go at once,________?

A wouldn"t you B had you C hadn"t you D should you

20. I am very interested in Mark Twain"s novels,________?

A aren"t I B am not I C aren"t you D are you

21. You’d rather watch TV this evening, ______?
A isn’t it      B hadn’t you      C wouldn’t you    D won’t you

22. I suppose you’re not going today, ______?
A are you      B do you  C don’t you    D aren’t you

23. I wish to shake hands with you, ______?
A shall     B may I     C do I      D will I

24. Three hours ought to be enough time, ______?
A oughtn’t three hours    B didn’t they    C shouldn’t it    D shouldn’t three hours

25.  They have to study a lot, ______?
A don’t they    B haven’t they    C did they    D hadn’t they

26. When the car crashed, your brother escaped being hurt, ______ ?
A didn’t he    B did he    C did it    D didn’t it

27. I"m sure dirty, ______?

A am I     B isn’t I     C aren’t I     D am not I

28. You seem to be dissatisfied with your present post. I don’t think you judged your ability objectively when you applied for it, ______ you?
A do    B did    C don’t     D didn’t

29.  That’s the sort of the book you want, ______?
A is it     B isn’t that    C is that    D isn’t it

第十一章 主谓一致

一、语法形式上的一致

1)主语是可数名词的单数或不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式.

Fengjie _____ very beautiful. The chicken ___very delicious.

2)不定代词one, each, every, either, neither, something, anything, nothing, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nobody, no one, everybody, everyone作主语时,谓语动词用单数.

Each of us _____ (have) something to say. Everyone _____ (be) here. Let"s begin our lesson!

不定代词none作主语时,如果修饰的是不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数;如果它所修饰的是可数名词,则谓语单,复数均可用.

None of the water _____ (be) clean here. None of us __________(be) perfect.

3)由and连接两个主语时,如果把这两个主语作为个体来考虑时,谓语动词用复数;如果把这两个主语看作一个整体时,谓语动词就用单数.

Lucy and Lily ________(be) friends. Fish and chips _______(be) my favorite food.

但如果and连接的两个并列主语指的是同一个人或一件事,谓语动词用单数。

The singer and the dancer _________(come) from Mars.

The singer and dancer _______ (come) from Mars.

4)主语后面有with, together with , along with , as well as ,except ,but, besides, like, such as等表示连带成分时,谓语动词的单复数由这些词前面的主语来决定,即主语是单数,谓语用单数;主语是复数,谓语用复数。

Look! A man with 12 parrot _______(be) fighting with a airhostess.

5)一些成双成对的复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数,如trousers, pants, shoes, gloves, glasses, scissors等。但如果在这些词前加上 a pair of 时,则谓语动词用单数

This pair of shoes _________ not mine, My shoes ______ in the box.

A: is are B: are is C: is is D: are are

6动名词或动词不定式作主语时,谓语动词用单数,但如果几个并列的动名词或不定式作主语,则谓语动词用复数。

Doing morning exercises ____ (be) good for your eyes. To help poor people ____ (be) our duty.

Listening, reading and speaking ____ (be) important in studying English

7一个从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

When we will go to Beijing _____ (be) not decided.

二、练习题

1. Time _______(be) money.

2. No one ________ (know) the truth.

3. The writer and the teacher ______(be) coming.

4. The writer and teacher_______ (be) coming.

5. Something ______(be ) wrong with your watch.

6. The teacher with his students _________(have) a meeting.

7. Everyone except Tom ______(be) wrong.

三、意义一致

1)集体名词如class(/同学们),family(家庭/家庭成员),audience(观众),group(小组),team(队),club(俱乐部)等作主语时,谓语动词取决于集体名词在句中所表示的意义。当它们表示一个整体的概念时,通常被看作单数;而当它们表示组成整体的个体成员时,它们就是复数意义。

Our class ______ (be) not big. The class _____ (wait) for a new teacher now.

2)一些单复数相同的单词如:Chinese, Japanese, fish, sheep, deer,谓语动词的单复数要根据它在句子中所表达的意义而定。

A little deer_____ (be) running on the hill. Some deer_____ (be) eating grass.

the Chinese, the Japanese, the English, the British, the French 等名词表国民总称时,作复数用。(其中English, British, French等不能指单个的人)

3People, police这两个词看似单数形式,但表达的是复数意义,作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

The people in the city _____ (be) very friendly. The police ____(look) for the lost boy now.

4)一些名词如maths, physics, politics(政治),news ,the United States等,其形式上虽以-s结尾,但表示的确是一门学科或一种事物,谓语动词只能用单数。

The United States ______(be) a developed country.

5当表示度量,距离,金额,时间等数量词作主语时,常把这个数量词看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数。

100 dollars ____ (be) not a small number. Twenty years ________(be) not a long time.

在一些算术题目中,一般把算术题目的主语看成是单数,谓语动词用单数,但在加和乘时谓语动词,也可用复数。

1. six minus four ______ (be) two. 2. Two and two ________ (be) four.

6分数作主语时,不是看分数本身,而是看这个分数所修饰的名词。如果其修饰的是不可数名词或可数名词单数,谓语动词用单数,如果是复数名词。则谓语动词用复数。

In our class two thirds of the students _______(be) girls.

Three quarters of the information on the internet _____(be) written in English.

7)由“the+形容词”构成的词,如 the old, the young, the rich, the poor等用来表示具有某种特性的一类人,作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

The rich ____ (have) a lot of money.

8)代词allmostwhat, who ,which, more , 等作主语时,谓语动词的单复数也要根据它所表达的意义来决定。

Most of the apples _____ (be) rotten. Most of the apple ____(be)eaten by a rat.

9关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,谓语动词的单复数由它修饰的先行词来决定。先行词是单数时,谓语动词用单数,反之用复数。

She is one of the few girls who _____ well paid(获得好收入) in the factory now.

A is B are C was D were

四、就近一致

1)在 …or, either…or…, neither…nor…not only…but also…, not …but…句型中,其谓语动词和邻近的那个主语保持一致.

Either Ann or Jane _______ (come) from USA.

Neither he nor I ______ (have) finish the work.

Not only his family but also he _______(like)Zhang Yimou’s movies.

要充分理解就近的含义,如:Are not only you but also he to blame?

2)在there be here be 结构中,如果主语不只一个。谓语动词通常和靠近be的名词来决定谓语的单复数形式。

1. There _____ (be) five pens and a book on the desk 2. There _____ (be) a book and five pens on the desk.

五、练习题

1. Three ______ died in the terrible fire in Luoyang last winter.

A. hundreds people B. hundred people C. hundreds peoples D. hundred peoples

2. Either you or the president _____ the prizes to these gifted winners at the meeting.

A is handing out B are to hand out C are handing out D is to hand out

3. I, who ______ your close friend, will try my best to help you out of trouble.

A. am B. is C. are D. be

4. The Olympic Games in the year 2008 _____ in Beijing of China, which _____ known to us all.

A. is to hold; is B. is to be held; was C. are to hold; is D. are to be held; is

5. There _____ a lot of rubbish on the floor so I asked Mary to sweep _____ up.

A. were; it B. are; them C. was; it D. is; them

6. Three million tons of coal _____ every year in the city.

A. is exploited B. are exploited C. had exploited D. have exploited

7. Stories of the Long March _______ popular with the young people now.

A. is B. was C. are D. were

8. Mathematics _______ the language of science.

A. are B. are going to be C. is D. is to be

9. Both rice and wheat _____ grown in our country.

A. is B. are C. was D. were

10. _____ either of your parents come to see you recently?

A. Have B. Had C. Has D. Is

11. What the children in the mountain village need _____ good books.

A. is B. are C. have D. has

12. The whole family _____ TV attentively.

A. are watching B. is watching C. is seeing D. are seeing

13. Nothing but several glasses ___ bought by my father the day before yesterday.

A. was B. were C. have been D. would be

14. At the bus stop ______ a soldier and two young people on their way to the village.

A. were B. was C. is D. sits

第十二章 介词

一、时间介词

1. at in on

At 表示在某一时间点,即点钟(做某事的)时刻等

如:I woke up at six. The plane will take off at seven

In 在一段较长的时间内,如世纪、年、季节、月、上下午、晚上

如:Trees turn green in spring.

On 表示在特定的日子、具体的日期、星期几、节日等

如:We usually go to the park on Sunday morning.

2. for since

For 后接时间段,表示动作或状态持续的时间 如:I have worked in the factory for ten years.

Since 后接时间点,表示动作从过去的时间点一直持续到说话时刻

如:I have lived in this house since 1990.

3. by till/until

By 表示一个瞬间动作发生在某一时间点之前 如:By the end of the day, we had finished the work.

Till/until 表示一个动作或状态一直持续到某一时间 如:I will be here till/until noon.

4. bybefore

By 不迟于某时,包括某时在内 如:I will finish the work by Friday

Before 在某时之前,不包括某时在内 如:Only two days remained before the examination.

二、地点介词

1. 表示地理位置的 in on to

In 表示在某一地域之内的某方位(属于该范围) 如:Beijing is in the north of China

On 表示与某地相邻的关系,但互不管辖 如:Russia lies on the north of China.

To 表示在某一地域之外的某方位,互不管辖,互不相邻 如:Japan lies to the east of China.

2. 表示上下位置关系的 on beneath over under above below

On 与表面有接触,反义词是beneath 如:There are some books on the desks.

Over 在物体的正上方或覆盖在物体表面,反义词是under

如:A lamp was hanging over the table. They were playing under the tree.

Above 离开物体表面而在其上方,但不一定是正上方,反义词是blew

: The plane flew above the clouds. Water was dripping on to the floor blew

3. 表示“穿过,越过”的through, across, over

Through 从内部通过,与in有关 如:The moonlight went through the window.

Across 在表面上通过,与on有关 如:He walked across the square to meet her.

Over 从物体的上方越过 如:The plane flew over the Pacific Ocean.(太平洋)

4. 表示“在……中间”的between, among

Between 某人或某物在另两个人或两物之间或多者中的两两之间

如:The house stands between two farms.

Among 用于三者以上,其所在范围内的人或事物常被视为一个整体

如:He arrived the earliest among us.

三、其他易混介词

1. 表示方式、方法、手段的with, in, by

With 表示用具体的工具,或用身体的某部位、器官 如:You can see it with your own eyes.

In 指使用某种语言、工具或材料等 如:He made the speech in English.

By 表示使用的方法、手段 如:He made money by selling newspaper.

2. 表示“除……以外”的besides, except/but, except for

Beside 除了以外还有.,其宾语是被包括在内的部分

如:Besides English, she has to study German.

Except/ but 以外,其宾语是被排除在外的,多指对同类事物的排除

如:You can park anywhere except/but here.

Except for 被排除的内容与句子所涉及的主体不是同一类的

如:A banana is mainly(果肉)except for its skin.

3. 表示“关于”的 about, on, of

About 侧重于人或事物有关的事迹或情况

如:My grandpa told me a lot of stories about Chairman Mao.

On 侧重阐述或论及相对重大或深奥的理论、学术等问题

: Who made the report on the situation in Middle East?

Of 表示“提及”某人某事,不涉及详细情况

——Do you know about that lady over there? ——NoI know little of her.

4. 表示“像”的as, like

As 侧重同一性,强调属于同一类或完全相似

如:She spoke of me as her dearest friend.

Like 侧重比较,是比喻,并不意味着是同一类或完全相似

如:Then I made faces and jumped like a monkey.

四、练习题

1. —Peter, can you tell me the difference_____ the four words? —Sorry, I don’t know.

A. between B. among C. for D. to

2. —Frank, when will the short meeting begin?

—You should come ____2:30 .If you come 10 minutes _____that time ,the meeting will be over.

A. at; before B. at; after C. after; before

3. Einstein, the famous scientist, was born ______ March, 1879.

A. at B. on C. in D. to

4. ——When is Henry’s birthday party, Lynn?

——The 18th, ___ about three o’clock in the afternoon.

A. in B. at C. on D. to

5. ——What’s the TV news______?

——The Chinese Team won five gold medals at World Table Tennis Championships.

A. at B. across C. above D. about

6. - Where is Taiwan, do you know?-Why? It’s ______the southeast of China.

A. in B. on C. to D. from

7. Tom told me his parents had arrived ______ Beijing.

A. at B. on C. in D. to

8. Taiwan is a beautiful island and it’s _________ the east of Fujian.

A. in B. on C. to D. from

9. -Xiao Shenyang is so popular ______ us.-Yeah, he is one of my favorite pop stars.

A. for B. to C. with D. on

10. I got an e-mail this morning. It was _______ my foreign friend, Tony.

A. in B. on C. at D. from

11. You can find a way to reach your goals when you are proud ____ yourself and stand tall like a sunflower.

A. on B. from C. of D. on

12. There is going to be a wonderful party __ the evening of October 1st, 2009.

A. in B. on C. at D. for

13. We have been doing much better in English _____our teacher’s help.

A. in B. to C. for D. with

14. -Which would you like, tea or coffee?
-Either ______ OK, but I prefer coffee ______ milk.

A. is, has    B. are, with    C. is, with   D. are, has

15.–Why are you standing there, Maggie?

–I can’t see the blackboard clearly. Two tall boys are sitting ______ me.

A. behind B. in the front of C. beside D. next to

16. The young men walked ______ the forest and came to a big river at last.

A. on B. over C. through D. across

17. -What time will you be home?

-I don’t know. It depends ________ the traffic.

A. of B. on C. for D. from

18. –Is the tie made ________ silk?

Yes. It’s made ________ Italy.

A. from, in B. of, in C. from, of D. of, from

19. -Thank you very much ____ helping me. -Not at all.

A. for B. of C. to

20. He often borrows things__ others, but he doesn’t lend anything __ anybody.

A. to, from B. from, to C. from, for

21. The fastest way to travel to Shanghai is _____ air .

A. in B. by C. on D. to

22. Our English teacher was standing _____ us so that she could hear us all clearly.

A. away from B. far behind C. between D. among.

23. Peter usually gets up early _____ the morning.

A. on B. in C. at D. of

24. The little boys go to school ______Monday to Saturday.

A. on B. from C. to D. of

25. You must ride your bike ________ the right side of the road.

A. at B. on C. in D. for

26. The policeman helped the old woman _________ the road.

A. above B. across C. through D. over

27. The way we learn English is quite different ________ that we learn maths.

A. from B. off C. between D. with

第十三章 定语从句

一、概念结构及区别

1.概念:1定语从句:在句中修饰名词或代词的句子在句中充当定语

2先行词定语从句所修饰的名词或代词。

3关系词:引导定语从句的词,分为关系代词(who, whom, that,which, whose

和关系副词(where, when, why,)

2. 结构:先行词+关系词+句子

3. The man (who lives next door us) is a policeman.

先行词 关系词 定语从句

4. 限定性定语从句与非限定性定语从句的区别

I have two pens which are black. 我有两个黑色的钢笔

I have two pens, which are black. 我有两个钢笔,它们是黑色的

word/media/image4.png形式不同;非限定性定语从句从句有逗号

word/media/image5.png翻译不同:限定性定语从句翻译在先行词之前;

非限定性定语从句翻译在先行词之后

word/media/image6.png作用不同:限定性定语从句起修饰限制作用;

非限定性定语从句起补充说明作用

二、 关系代词的用法

1)如果先行词是表示物的名词或代词,which / that 代替主语或宾语

This is a dream which/that will never come true.(主)

The monkey which was lost has been found.(主)

This is the letterwhich / thatI’ve just received.(宾)

2)如果先行词是表示人的名词或代词,关系代词应用who, that (作主语或宾语)whom (作宾语)

This is the film star who/that is very popular in China. ()

Do you know the man who spoke at the meeting yesterday? ()

The boy who(m) I ‘m looking for is my friend. (宾)

The thief whom the police caught last night has been sent to prison. (宾)

小结:that 既可指人,也可指物,作主语,不能省略;作宾语,可以省略。

which-指物,作主语,不能省略;作宾语,可以省略.

who 指人,作主语,不能省略;作宾语,可以省略,(常用whom

:当关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语从句的谓语动词形式由先行词定。

3whose 作定语,表示所属关系

The boy whose father is a policeman is my classmate.

注意: 只能用 that , 不用 which, 常见的情况有六种:

1当先行词是 all, any, few, little, none, anything, everything, nothing , everybody, nobody, everyone, no one 或被它们修饰时。

2当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时

3当先行词有the very, the only, the same等修饰时

4当主句以whowhich开头定语从句的关系词用that而不用which who

5 当先行词同时包括人或物时,关系词用that.

三、关系副词的用法when/ where/why

1.when 作时间状语: when = 介词 + which

She will never forget the day when (=on which) she was married.

It was the year when (= in which) the World War I broke out.

2. where 作地点状语:where = 介词 + which

I want to know the place where (= in which) I was born.

The table where (= at which ) she is sitting is a new one.

3. why 作原因状语, 其先行词常常是the reason. why = for which

That is the reason why(= for which) I’m late.

I know the reason why he said it.

四、练习题

1. John is the boy___ legs were badly hurt in the accident.

A. whose B. that C. who D. which

2. The first thing ________ my brother is going to do this afternoon is to write a letter.

A. which B. that C. why D. who

3. —Do you know the girl _____ is talking to our English teacher?

—Yes. She"s my sister.

A. who B. whom C. which D. Whose

4. —Have you seen a woman _____ hat is pink?

—Sorry. I didn’t notice that.

A. that B. what C. whose D. who

5. Jane is one of the students in the class _______ have ever been to China.

A. who B. whose C. which D. whom

6. ---- Do you know the man _______ is reading the book over there?

----Yes, he’s Mr. Green, our PE teacher.

A. which B. what C. whom D. who

7. The people _____ helped us build our hometown are from Beijing.

A. which B. whom C. who D. where

8. The students in the higher grades _______ I met in a football game are my good friends now.

A. when B. which C. who D. where

9. ---What are you looking for?

---I’m looking for the book ____ you lent me yesterday.

A. that B. who C. whose D. who

10. —Who is your new head teacher this semester?

—The woman _______ is wearing a red skirt.

A. whom B. who C. whose D. which

11. Jim dislikes people ________talk much but never do anything.

A. whom B. when C. whose D. who

12. We are trying to help those children ____ lost their parents in WenChuan.

A. Which B. when C. who D. whose

13. Do you know the girl ______is singing in the classroom?

A. who B. which C. when D. whose

14. Friends are those _____ make you smilealways open their hearts to you and encourage you to succeed.

A which B what C whom D who

15. —The village _____I visited last year has changed a lot.

—Really? I hope to go there on day.

A. which B. who C. when D where

16. This is my beautiful school _______ is near the famous library.

A. where B. which C. who D. when

17. --- Do you know the boy_______ is sitting next to Peter?

--- Yes. He is Peter’s friend. They are celebrating his tenth birthday.

A. who B. that C. / D. which

18. The TV play is about a true story ______ happened in Mianyang in 1998.

A. it B. what C. that D. when

19. ——I don’t know your brother.

—Oh. The man ______came to see me yesterday is my brother.

A. who B. whose C. where D. whom

20. I still remember the park ______ we first visit.

A. that B. which C. where D. when

21. My grandparents like to live in a house _____ is not very big but bright and comfortable.

A. that B. who C. what D. whose

22. All ______ you must do now is to lend us ten dollars, because we haven‘t brought any money with us at the moment.

A. that B. what C. which D. things

23. This is the modern hotel ______ the guests can enjoy the most comfortable things.

A. where B. which C. that D. in that

24. I can tell you ______ he told me last week.

A. all which B. all what C. that all D. all that

25. This is the biggest lab _____ we have ever built in our university.

A. which B. what C. that D. where

26. Air, ______ we breathe every day, is around us all the time.

A. that B. / C. which D. it

27. We often think of the days _____ we spent together on the island.

A. when B. which C. that D. who

28. Is it in that factory ____ “Red Flag” cars are made?

A. who B. where C. that D. which

29. The reason ______ he didn’t come was ______ he was injured.

A. that, because B. why, that C. why, because D. that, that

30. The factory ______ I am going to is the place ______ my mother used to work many years ago.

A. where, where B. where, which C. which, where D. that, which

第十四章 状语从句

一、 时间状语从句

引导词:when/while/as()before(在之前)、after(在之后)、until(直到才)、since(自从)、as soon as(一就)

(1)When①主句中的动作先于从句中的动作发生,且进行的时间较长时,主句用过去进行时(从句常用一般过去时)

Eg: I was doing my homework when my mother came in. We were reading when the teacher came in.

②从句中的动作先于主句中的动作发生,且进行的时间较长时,从句用过去进行时(主句用一般过去时)Eg: When the students were having a meeting, the teacher came in.

③主句动作和从句动作都已完成,主句动作发生在前,可用过去完成时;从句动作发生在后,用一般过去时 EgWhen they got to the cinema the film had been on five minutes.

(2) While 1.主从句动作开始的时间不存在先后关系(即同时发生)或无所谓先后时,主从句同时使用过去进行时,由while 引导

Eg My mother was cooking while I was doing my homework last night.

2.when while 表为的时候时,when 引导的从句谓语可以是瞬间动词或延续性动词;while 引导的从句谓语必须是延续性动词

EgThe train had just left when we arrived at the station . arrive是瞬间动词。

I made some foreign friends when/while I was in London.

(3) before....之前。表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之前。

EgTake the medicine before you go to bed.

(4) after 之后。 表示主句的动作发生在从句的动作之后。

Eg: After he had finished his composition, he left is office.

(5) as soon as 就。从句的动作发生,主句的动作随即发生(主将从现)

Eg: I will ring you as soon as I get there.即当主句时态是过去时,从句的时态也用过去时

Eg: I tried to call you as soon as I heard from you, but you were not in.

6since 1.主句(现在完成时)+since+从句(一般过去时)

EgHe has worked in this school since he graduated from Peking university.

2.It is +时间+since +从句(一般过去时) It has been+时间+since+从句(一般过去时)

Eg: It is ten years since I began to study English.

Eg: It has been 8years since I studied English.

3.since 从句的谓语动词必须是延续性的动词,译为否定;瞬间动词译为肯定。

EgIt is five years since he joined the army.(瞬间)

It has been two years since my father smoked.

(7)until /till

1.主句的谓语动词是延续性动词时,主句用肯定形式,表示这一动作或状态一直延续到until/till 所表示的时间为止。 Eg: I’ll wait for you till you come to see me.

2.当主句是否定句时,主句谓语动词应是瞬间动词 主句的动作发生在从句的动作之前

构成句式:not……until 有时不用not,而用neverhardly)、nothingnone)等表示否定的词Eg: I didn’t go to bed until I finished my homework. I won’t leave my office until my work is finished.

练习题:

1. Hardly had he reached the school gate _____ the bell rang.

A. while B. when C. as D. as soon as 

2.We were told that we should follow the main road _____ we reached the central railway station.

A. whenever    B. until   C. while    D. wherever

3. I recognized you ________ I saw you at the airport.

A. the moment B. while C. after D. once

4. He was about to go to bed ___ the doorbell rang.

A. while B. as C. before D. when

5. _____ John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.

A. As B. As soon as C. While D. Till

6. The children ran away from the orchard(果园) _____ they saw the guard.

A. the moment B. after C. before D. as

7. No sooner had I arrived home _____ it began to rain.

A. when B. while C. as D. than

二、 条件状语从句

引导词:if (如果)、as long as(只要)、unless(除非)

if 主句为一般将来时,从句用一般现在时

I’ll visit the Great Wall if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.

⑵如果if引导的条件状语从句所表示的前提或条件将来可以实现或正在进行。动词要用现在完成时或进行时。主句通常用将来时

We will give you a good price if you are thinking of buying it.

祈使句and/or 引导的结果状语从句中,祈使句在意义上相当于一个条件状语从句

Hurry up or else/otherwise you’ll be late

Use your head, and you’ll find a way.= If you use your hand, you’ll find a way.

在下列情况下,if 引导的条件状语从句必须用一般现在时:①主句时态是一般将来时;②主句中有情态动词canmaymusthad better等;③主句是祈使句

Lucy may fall behind her classmates if she doesn’t study hard.

Please call me if many comes tomorrow.

If you still have any other questions, please put up your hands.

练习题:

1.Study hardand you’ll make great progress.(改成同义句)

2.Study hardor you will fall behind the others.

3.—I don’t know if it _____ tomorrow——We won’t go hiking if it _____ tomorrow.

A. will rain will rain B. rains rains C. will rainrains D. rainswill rain

if 从句和so 从句的混用

1.If Kate goes to the cinema__________

A. so does Tom B. so will Tom C. neither will Tom D. neither does

2.——I wonder if your wife will go hiking. ——If your wife _____, so ___.

A. doesdoes she B. willwill mine C. doeswill mine D. willwill her

3. If Jim doesn’t go swimming tomorrow ____.

A. so does Tom B. so will Tom C. neither will Tom D. neither does Tom

三、原因状语从句

Because(原因) since(既然) as(由于) for(由于)

(1).Because原因状语从句通常用becausesinceas引导,这三个词所表示的语气由becauseas逐渐减弱。由why 提出的问题用because来回答

Because表示原因语气最强,经常表示作者未知的原因

——Why are you late ——Because I’m ill.

又可以在强调句型中成为被强调的部分

It is because you are lazy that you have lost the job. 正因为你懒惰才失去了工作

since 次于because引导的从句,常表示稍加分析后推断出来的原因或指的是人们已知的事实 Since no one is against it, let’s carry out the plan.

Since you can’t answer the question, you can ask someone for help.

as 语气最弱,其原因只是对结果的附带说明,可以放在主句前或主句后

You’d better wear strong shoes as we’ll do a lot of walking.

because 表为因为,强调未知原因,是句中较重要的部分,它用来回答why 的提问,because从句放在主句之后

sinceas意思是既然、由于,表示显而易见的原因,是句中不甚重要的部分,更强调结果。Sinceas引导的从句常放在主句之前。Sinceas正式,再者都不能回答why 的提问

as a result of(因为)because of (因为)、thanks to(多亏、由于)

Thanks to the good weather this spring, the crops are growing quite well.

The sports meeting was put off because the weather was bad.

for 属并列连词,但不是说明直接原因,而是对某种情况加以推断,用于表示补充说明理由 He must be ill, for he is absent today. The days are short, for it is now December.

1. He didn’t go to school ______ he was ill.

2. He was angry ______ we made a noise.

3.______ water is very important to us, we should protect our rivers and lakes.

4._________ you are not feeling wellyou’d better stay at home.

5._________ it was raining hardwe had to be indoors.

6. After school I found mother was sick in bed.________ mother was illI should do something for her.

四、目的状语从句

so that(以便、为了)in order that(为了)等谓语中常含有maymightcancouldwillwould等情态动词

He must get up early so that he can catch the first bus.

I sit in the front of the classroom so that I can see clearly.

当补句主语与主句一致时,可用so as to, in order to

He worked day and night in order that he could succeed.=

He worked day and night in order to succeed.

五、结果状语从句

So…that/such…that如此以至于;so that 结果是

⑴ so that 引导的目的状语从句与so that引导的结果状语从句

目的状语从句一般使用情态动词;结果状语从句一般不使用情态动词

目的状语从句只能放在句末; 结果状语从句常常用逗号与主句分开

I’ll wash the dress soon so that you can wear it tomorrow.(目的状语从句)

The roof had fallen in, so that the hut was out of use.(结果状语从句)

⑵ so …that such …that 区别

a so…that 句型中,so是副词,其后接形容词或副词

so + adj. / adv + that

so + adj. +a/an + 单数名词 + that

so many/much/few/little() + 名词

1. She is so lovely a girl that we love her very much.

2. It’s so hot that nobody wants to go out.

3. We have so much time that we can finish the work very well.

b Such + a/an + + 单数名词 + that

Such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that Such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that

She is such an honest women that everybody trust her.

It is such nice weather that I don’t like to stay at home.

She is such a lovely girl that we love her very much.

c So … that 句型的否定形式可用“too … to… ”“not… enough to”代替

He is so young that he can’t go to school.

= He is too young to go to school.= He is not old enough to go to school.

他太小了以至于不能去上学

六、让步状语从句

引导词:though/although(尽管、虽然)even if(即使)、whatever(无论什么)、wherever(无论哪里)、whenever(无论何时)even though(即使)

1.though/although 虽然、尽管

例:Though/although it was very hot, he kept on working.

①注意thoughalthough语义相同,两者可换用。但althoughthough语气重,主句中可以用yetstillnevertheless 与其呼应,但不可使 but

例:Though I believe it, yet I must consider.

though 可作副词,放在句末,意为不过,但是although无此用法

He said he would help me he didn’t though.

他说他会帮我的,但是他并没有帮我

③在短语even though as though中不可换用although

2.even though even if “尽管”“即使

这两个复合连词意义相同,常用以强调让步概念,会有退一步想的意思(有时用于虚拟语气)

例:We’ll make a trip even if/though the weather is bad. 即使天气很糟糕,我们要去旅行

例:Even if I were in your place, I wouldn’t take the job.即使我在你的位置,我也不会接受这份工作(虚拟语气)

例:He will come even if he is ill. 即使他病了他也会来

例:I won’t give up even if I should fail ten times. 即使失败十次,我也不会放弃。

3.whoever/no matter who(无论谁,不管什么人)whatever/no matter what(无论什么、不管什么样的)whichever/no matter which(无论哪个)Whomever=no matter whom(无论谁、宾格)

例:Whoever/no matter who you areyou must obey the law.无论你是谁,你都得守法。

例:Don’t lose heart, whatever/no matter what happens.不管发生什么都不要气馁。

七、地点状语从句

引导词:where(…的地方)wherever(无论哪里)

We must camp where we can get water. I will follow you whenever you go.

You are free to go wherever you like. Make a mark where you have any questions.

Sit wherever you like.

注:where wherever区别 Wherever= to/at anyplace where

I’ll go where he went. I’ll go wherever he goes.

地点状语从句与定语从句的区别

Where引导定语从句时,从句前应有一个表示地点作先行词;而状语从句前则无先行词

Go back where you come from Go back to the village where you came from

1. After the wara new school building was put up _____ there had once been a theatre.

A. that B. where C. which D. when

2. The class went on with the story _____ they had left it before the holiday.

A. where B. which C. in which D. when

3. --- Don’t look down upon Bob. He has his own advantages.

--- Oh, yes. ____ others are weak, he is strong.

A. If B. When C. Where D. Though

4.________he is, he will be thinking of you.

A. Wherever B. Where C. Now that D. As soon as

5. All the neighbor admire this family ____the parents are treating their child like a friend. A. why B. where C. which D. that

6. You’d better not leave the medicine ______ kids can get at it.

A. even if B. which C. where D. so that

八、比较状语从句

引导词:than(比)、as….as…(一样)not as/ so…as(不如…)the more….the more….(….…..) She studies harder than he is.

The project was completed earlier than we had expected.

The more you eat the fatter you will be

九、方式状语从句

引导词:as (按照、像一样、正如…..As if/ as though (好像、正如)

I’ll do it as you tell me. (按照) Every student did as the teacher said.

Just as water is to fish, so air is to man. We are to them what fish is to water.

Reading is to mind what food is to the body.

as if/as though 引导的从句若与事实相反用虚拟语气;若与事实相符不用虚拟语气。

She looks as if she’s going to cry. I remember it as if it were yesterday.

Our teacher treats us as though we were her children.

十、练习题

1. The players kept on training __ it rained heavily.

A. since B. though C. because D. for

2. — Dad, I"m afraid that I can"t do it.

— Take it easy, dear. You"ll never know it ____ you try.

A. after B. since C. when D. until

3. Mr Li didn’t come to school _____ he was ill.

A. but B. because C. and D. or

4. Why don’t you look up the new word in a dictionary______ you don’t know it ?

A. if B. that C. though D. whether

5. He didn’t go to bed __ he finished his homework.

A. when B. if C. that D. until

6. Ben was unhappy ___ he got a C in the math test.

A. because B. before C. if D. when

7. It is known to all that____ you exercise regularly , you won’t stay in good health.

A. unless B. if C. until D. as

8. You can’t go out and play_____ you’ve done your homework.

A. when B. since C. while D. until

9. —Why hasn’t Mr .Li come to work today ?

—______he has gone to Beijing to have a meeting.

A. If B. After C. Before D. Because

10. Kate is ____busy____ she can’t have a picnic with us this weekend.

A. too; to B. so; that C. such; that D. so; as

11. Uncle Wang gave all his saving to the Hope School ____he himself was not rich.

A. because B. though C. if D. or

12.We were so excited that we rushed into the street____ we heard the news.

A. until B. ever since C. as if D. as soon as

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