美国大学英语写作_《美国大学英语写作》课后习题答案(PART 1)


英语写作 2020-09-19 22:09:16 英语写作
[摘要]ANSWER KEYPart One: Essay Writing1 An Introduction to WritingActivity (Point and Support in a Paragr[db:cate]

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ANSWER KEY

Part One: Essay Writing

1 An Introduction to Writing

Activity (Point and Support in a Paragraph), pages 56

Point: There are drawbacks to moviegoing.

Support: 1. Inconvenience

b. Long time to find parking spot and long walk to theater

d. Sticky floor

3. Other moviegoers

a. Running kids

b. Laughing, shouting teenagers

Activity (Introductory Paragraph), 8

1. c

2. b

3. a

4. a. Inconvenience of going out

b. Temptations of the theater

c. Behavior of some patrons

Activity (Body: Supporting Paragraphs), 910

1. To begin with, I just dont enjoy the general hassle of the evening.

2. b. Parking lot is always jammed

d. Tickets may sell out, and theater is crowded

e. Tickets cost up to $8 each

3. Second, the theater offers tempting snacks that I really dont need.

4. b. 2) chocolate bars

3) Milk Duds

5. Many of the other patrons are even more of a problem than the concession stand.

6. a. Little kids race up and down the aisles

b. Teenagers talk back to the screen, whistle, make funny noises

Activity (Concluding Paragraph), 10

1. a

2. c

Review Activities, 1820

Answers will vary.

2 The Writing Process

Activities (Freewriting, Questioning, Making a List, Clustering, Scratch Outline), 2531

Answers will vary.

Activity (Writing a First Draft), 33

1. thesis 5. specific

2. first 6. bs

3. equiped (other answers are possible) 7. conclusion

4. second and third

Activity (Revising with a Second Draft), 3637

1. Second 5. watching what I keep in the house

2. however 6. comfortable seats

3. unity . . . My friends are as bad as I am. 7. As

4. support . . . snacks like celery and carrot 8. jump into my hands

sticks . . . no ice cream in the freezer . . . 9. disgusted

dripping with butter . . . risk pulling out

my fillings as I chew

Activity (Taking a Writing Inventory), 3940

Answers will vary.

Activity (Prewriting), 4143

L, Q, SO, C, F

Activity 1 (Outlining), 4345

1. Thesis:My high school had three problem areas.

a. Students

(1) Involved with drugs

(2) Formed cliques

b. Teachers

(1) Unwilling to help after class

(2) Much too strict

c. Buildings

(1) Leaky ceilings

(2) Ill-equipped gym

2. Thesis:Working as a dishwasher in a restaurant was my worst job.

a. Working conditions

(1) Heat in kitchen

(2) Noisy work area

b. Hours

(1) Ten-hour shifts

(2) Hours changed every week

c. Pay

(1) Minimum wage

(2) No bonus for overtime

3. Thesis: Joining an aerobics class has many benefits.

a. Social benefits

(1) Make new friends

(2) Meet interesting instructors

b. Mental benefits

(1) Reduces mental stress

(2) Improves self-image

c. Physical benefits

(1) Strengthens heart

(2) Tones muscles

4. Thesis: My favorite times in school were the days before holiday vacations.

a. Lighter workload

(1) Less work in class

(2) Less homework

b. Friendlier atmosphere

(1) Teachers more relaxed

(2) Students happy about vacation

c. Special events

(1) Pep rallies

(2) Holiday concerts

Activity 2 (Outlining), 4547

Thesis:More and more, the inventions of modern technology seem to be cutting us off from contact with our fellow human beings.

First topic sentence:The world of business is one area in which technology is isolating us.

Support: 2. Workers salaries are automatically credited to their bank accounts.

3. Personal banking is becoming a detached process.

a. Customers interact with machines rather than people.

b. Some loans are accepted or rejected by computers, not loan officers.

Second topic sentence: Another area that technology is changing is entertainment.

Support: 1. For many people now, music is a solitary experience.

2. Fewer people go out to watch movies.

Third topic sentence: Education is a third important area in which technology is separating us from others.

Support: 1. Students sit alone in front of computers.

2. Students use software at home instead of interacting with others.

3. Videotapes are replacing class instruction.

Activity (Revising), 4748

2, 1, 4, 3

3 The First and Second Steps in Essay Writing

Activity (Writing a Good Thesis), 5051

List 1 List 2

2 Teachers 3 Bicycles

l Education 4 Dangers of bike riding

3 Math teacher l Recreation

5 My high school math 2 Recreational vehicles

teacher was incompetent. 5 Bike riding in the city is a

4 High school math teacher dangerous experience.

List 3 List 4

1 Retail companies 3 Camping

2 Supermarkets 4 First camping trip

4 Dealing with customers 2 Summer vacation

3 Working in a supermarket 5 My first camping trip was a

5 Ive learned how to handle disastrous experience.

unpleasant supermarket customers. l Vacations

Activity (Common Errors in Writing a Thesis), 53

A. 1. TB B. 6. 2

2. TN 7. A

3. TB 8. 2

4. TN 9. A

5. TB 10. 2

Activity (Support the Thesis with Specific Evidence), 5455

Answers for this activity will vary; a possible third point for each outline is listed below.

1. c. Learning new rules and procedures 4. c. Save money

2. c. Sense of humor 5. c. Long hours

3. c. Too cold in the winter 6. c. Worry about finances

Activity (The Importance of Specific Details), 57

S 1. The paragraph lists specific precautions: getting a permit and buying

pressure-treated lumber.

X 2. What kinds of things did the writer do wrong? What specific rules were enforced?

How did this parent punish the writer?

S 3 The paragraph lists specific examples of items that should not be improved:

cheesecake and jeans.

X 4. What kinds of problems does the dog have? How does the dog misbehave when the owners are away? How did the owners try to train the dog?

Activity 1 (The Importance of Adequate Details), 58

Answers are given in the text after the activity.

Activity (Identifying the Parts of an Essay), 61

Thesis statement: 4

Topic sentence of first supporting paragraph: 5

Topic sentence of second supporting paragraph: 15

Topic sentence of third supporting paragraph: 22

First sentence of the conclusion: 34

Activity 1 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 6162 Activity 2 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 62

1. A a. 1. TN a.

OK b. OK b.

2. OK a. 2. TN a.

A b. OK b.

3. OK a. 3. TN a.

A b. OK b.

4. A a. 4. OK a.

OK b. TN b.

5. A a. 5. OK a.

OK b. TN b.

Activity 3 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 6263 Activity 4 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 63

1. TB a. 1. OK a.

OK b. 2 b.

2. TB a. 2. 2 a.

OK b. OK b.

3. OK a. 3. OK a.

TB b. 2 b.

4. TB a. 4. 2 a.

OK b. OK b.

5. TB a. 5. 2 a.

OK b. OK b.

Activity (Completing Thesis Statements), 64

Answers for this activity will vary; a possible third point of development for each thesis statement is listed below.

1. science. 6. coach

2. to be enthusiastic. 7. we were emotionally immature.

3. my boyfriend. 8. manners

4. money. 9. my relationships with others.

5. breaks down regularly. 10. the time I dented my friends car.

Activity (Writing a Thesis Statement), 65

Answers may vary slightly.

1. The cars Ive owned have reflected the changes in my personality.

2. Attending a two-year college has several advantages.

3. I have tried several ways to give up snacks.

4. Halloween is not all fun.

5. Three factors contributed to my heart attack.

Activity 1 (Limiting a Topic and Writing a Thesis), 66

Answers will vary; a possible thesis for each limited subject is listed below.

1. Sharing an apartment with a roommate helped me adjust to a new city.

2. Deciding to be less critical of your spouse can help a marriage.

3. My mothers tidiness drives us crazy.

4. Fast-food restaurants are cheaper, cleaner, and friendlier than other restaurants.

5. My cousin Myra has several bad driving habits.

6. Regular exercise can help ease emotional problems.

7. Do-it-yourself repairs always end up costing me more money than theyre supposed to.

8. The free-agent system has made baseball a big business, not a sport.

9. Being a single parent can be exhausting, frustrating, and intimidating.

10. Noise pollution is a growing problem in our city.

Activity 2 (Limiting a Topic and Writing a Thesis), 67

Answers will vary; some possible limited subjects and thesis statements are listed below.

1. Exotic animals as pets

People should not be allowed to keep exotic animals as pets.

2. Teens and birth control

Parents should be notified if their daughters visit a birth control clinic.

3. The new seasons TV programming

The new television programs are carbon copies of last years successful shows.

4. Computerized offices

Computers in offices are creating new health problems for employees.

5. Major fields of study

Choosing a major does not have to be done blindly.

6. House calls

Doctors should be compelled to make house calls.

7. Summer vacations

Summer is the worst time of year to take a vacation.

8. Barbecuing

There are three kinds of people who will be found behind a barbecue grill.

9. Childrens allowances

Getting an allowance teaches a child to be responsible, mature, and thrifty.

10. Christmas shopping

One year I made the mistake of doing my Christmas shopping months in advance.

Activity (Providing Specific Evidence), 6869

Answers will vary; some possibilities are listed below.

1. Guests arrived two hours late; roast was burned; host and hostess got into a huge fight

2. Collects dead frogs, birds, and worms; loves to dunk pizza in his chocolate milk; combs his hair with his toothbrush

3. Too tired; too hungry; too disorganized

4. Chose my friends for me; chose my clothes for me; chose my college for me

5. Baby-sitting, gardening, baking cookies

6. New ignition, new brakes, new heater

7. Cat got sick; kids got sick; roof started to leak

8. Slept at his desk; gave six hours of homework per night; had a nasty temper

Activity (Identifying Adequate Supporting Evidence), 6970

AD 1.

U 2. What are specific examples of how people are thoughtless to pets? What are the particular needs of pets that may be ignored? Examples might include bathing animals regularly, treating them for fleas, helping them stay cool in summer, exercising them, and providing a nutritious diet.

U 3. What are specific examples of shows that are of little interest to people? Exactly how would commercials be changed? How would network news be made more interesting? Examples might include the names of shows (situation comedies, game shows, and so on) that arent popular. Commercials might be changed by eliminating repetitious jingles or celebrity endorsements (using examples of current commercials).

AD 4.

U 5. What are examples of how the woman was set in her ways? What did she say about the kind of hairdo she wanted? For example, the woman might have rejected any suggestions other than the style she was used to. What did the writer do that was unsuccessful? And how did the woman seem to indicate that the writer was not doing what she wanted? For instance, she might have shook her head or sighed every time the writer attempted to please her.

Activity (Adding Details to Complete an Essay), 7073

Answers will vary; possible supporting details are included in the paragraphs below.

First of all, with no television to compete for our time, we found plenty of hours for personal interests. We all read more that week than we had read during the six months before.Dad introduced Mom to his favorite mystery writerDorothy Sayersand it was pleasant to see them sitting on the sofa together, each one absorbed in a book. Luella, serious as always, read novels by Charles Dickens, while I settled modestly for the daily newspapers. We each also enjoyed some hobbies we had ignored for ages.Mom and Dad did crossword puzzles together, Lu dusted off her stamp collection, and I finished knitting the sweater I had started last September. In addition, my sister and I both stopped procrastinating with our homework.Instead of putting off our English and math assignments until our favorite shows were over, we tackled them right after supper and found that, without the sound of the TV blaring in our ears, we could do them in a couple of hoursfar more quickly than we expected.

Second, we did chores that had been hanging over our heads for too long. There were many jobs around the house that had needed attention for some time.Mom fixed a faucet that had been dripping for weeks while Dad patched the cracked plaster in the dining room. Lu and I cleaned our closets, finding records, tapes, and magazines that had been missing for months. By the end of the week, the house was in tidier shape than it had been since we moved in. We also had a chance to do some long-postponed shopping.Mom and Dad picked out a new sofa for the den; Lu bought some new books, and I went through a whole stack of catalogs and finished all my Christmas shopping by mail. And each of us also did some letter writing or other paperwork that was long overdue. Mom and Dad struggled with this years income tax forms, Lu wrote to Johnny, a friend she met at Spirit Lake last summer, and I wrote a thank-you note to Aunt Elsie for letting me stay with her during my weekend in New York City last month.

Finally, and probably most important, we spent time with each other. Instead of being in the same room together while we stared at a screen, we actually talked for many pleasant hours. Mom told us about the programming project she has been doing at work, and we had fun planning the trip to Boston we are going to take this summer. Moreover, for the first time in years my family played some games together. We played several games of Scrabble, and we even got out the Monopoly set and played a game following the rules our family has made up over the years. And because we didnt have to worry about missing this or that show, we had some family friends over a couple of evenings and spent an enjoyable time with them.We were glad to see how much the Overholt children had grown, and Joe and Sandy Ciprianni kept us laughing all evening with their stories about fixing up the old house they bought.

4 The Third Step in Essay Writing

Fill-ins (Common Methods of Organization), 7576

The topic sentences in the essay use the words To begin with, Next, and Finally to help show time order.

The paragraph uses the following words to help show time order: Next, first, Then, After, and Finally.

The topic sentences in the essay use the words For one thing, In addition, and Most important to help show emphatic order.

The words Worst of all are used to mark the most emphatic detail in the paragraph.

Activity (Common Methods of Organization), 77

A. 1. time order B. time; emphatic; time; emphatic

2. emphatic order

3. combination of time and emphatic order

Activity (Transitions), 7880

1. Addition signals: One, Also, Another

2. Time signals:After,First, Next, Finally

3. Space signals:Next [to], To the right, Near

4. Change-of-direction signals:But, however

5. Illustration signals:For example, such as

6. Conclusion signals:Finally, therefore

Activity (Transitional Sentences), 81

Answers may vary slightly.

In addition to teaching me about the importance of family support, my parents taught me the value of hard work.

Along with the value of hard work, my parents emphasized the benefits of a good education.

Activity (Other Connecting Words), 83

1. four times

2. he

3. iron range; throbbing swellings; frigid

Activity (Introductory Paragraph), 86-87 Activity (Concluding Paragraph), 89

1. B Starting with an opposite 1. P/R

2. F Quotation 2. Q

3. A General to narrow 3. S

Activity (Titles), 9091

Answers will vary; examples of titles are given below.

1. Choosing McDonalds

2. A Diner at Midnight

3. Audiences at Rock Concerts

Activity 1 (Organizing Through Time Order), 9193

1. 1 2. 3 3. 1

3 1 3

2 2 2

Activity 2 (Organizing Through Emphatic Order), 9596

1. 2 2. 3 3. 2

1 1 3

3 2 1

Activity (Providing Transitions), 9394

First of all, there are the people . . .

For example, there are the ones . . .

Another type of nervous . . .

However, neither of these . . .

A second category of people . . .

On the contrary, they feel compelled . . .

As a result, no one hears . . .

After they have been to the theater . . .

Then they will start . . .

Last of all, there are the people who talk . . .

In addition, it is impossible . . .

But if ever I am granted . . .

Activity (Identifying Transitions and Other Connecting Words), 9596

S 1. T 9.

P 2. RW 10.

T 3. S 11.

S 4. T 12.

P 5. P 13.

RW 6. RW 14.

P 7. T 15.

P 8.

Activity (Completing Transitional Sentences), 9697

Thesis 1:

After making certain that your house conforms to state regulations, you must obtain legal
permits . . .

Finally, once you have the necessary legal permits, you can begin to advertise . . .

Thesis 2:

In addition to saving me money, watching the game at home is more comfortable than sitting in a stadium . . .

Even more important than cost and comfort, though, is the technology which makes a televised game better than the real thing.. . .

Activity (Identifying Introductions and Conclusions), 97-99

Pair 1:

D Incident or story

I Prediction or recommendation

Pair 2:

E Question(s)

G Summary and final thought

Pair 3:

F Quotation

G Summary and final thought

5 The Fourth Step in Essay Writing

Activity (Use Parallelism), 101102

Answers may vary slightly.

1. The novelty store sells hand buzzers, plastic fangs, and fake insects.

2. Many people share the same three great fears: being in high places, working with numbers, and making speeches.

3. To decide on a career, people should think closely about their interests, hobbies, and skills.

4. At the body shop, the car was sanded down to the bare metal, painted with primer, and sprayed with red enamel.

5. In order to become a dancer, Lola is taking lessons, working in amateur shows, and auditioning for professional companies.

6. Juans last job offered security; his new job offers a better chance for advancement.

7. People in todays world often try to avoid silence, whether on the job, in school, or at home.

8. Because the dying woman was dignified and courageous, she won everyones respect.

9. The politician trusted no one, rewarded loyalty, and depended only on his own instincts.

10. If were not careful, well leave the next generation polluted air, contaminated water, and dying forests.

Activity (Consistency with Verbs), 103

1. arrive arrived 6. floated floats

2. asks asked 7. grabs grabbed

3. sliced slices 8. swooped swoops

4. went goes 9. recharged recharge

5. tips tipped 10. burns burned

Activity (Consistency with Pronouns), 104105

1. your their health 6. you I can own

2. you I never know 7. you her indigestion

3. youwe have if youwe 8. you we dont dare

4. their its aggressive 9. we they can learn

5. one you should plan 10. one you should dress

Activity 1 (Use Specific Words), 106107

Answers will vary; following are examples.

1. Potato chips, pretzels, and salted peanuts . . .

2. . . . papers, books, and magazines . . .

3. . . . a TV, a CD player, and a computer.

4. The comics, the sports pages, the obituaries, and the society page . . .

5. . . .my throat, my ears, and my lungs . . .

Activity 2 (Use Specific Words), 107108

Answers will vary; following are examples.

1. The rusty old Buick sputtered, whined, and refused to start.

2. The mathematics final was filled with tricky, baffling problems.

3. Little Robbie was so exhausted that he could scarcely keep his eyes open.

4. My cluttered, jumbled, dusty bedroom needs to be swept out, scrubbed, and reorganized.

5. A broken-down city bus blocked Main Street

and stopped traffic for an hour.

Activity (Use Active Verbs), 109

1. The typical American diet includes many unhealthy foods.

2. Hundreds of biting ants invaded the family picnic.

3. Doctors use antibiotics to treat many infections.

4. A drunk driver caused the fatal traffic accident.

5. The instructor will determine final grades on the basis of class performance.

Activity (Use Concise Words), 110111

Answers will vary.

1. I will conclude by summarizing my major points.

2. Every day, parents must control their childrens television watching.

3. I am shy.

4. Magazine advertising contains clever hidden messages.

5. My worst mistake last week was to hurt my brothers feelings and not apologize.

6. In todays uncertain economy, the middle class finds it hard to save.

7. We liked last nights television show, but our parents didnt.

8. The school district canceled classes because of the bad weather.

9. I regret not having studied word processing in high school.

10. People are harmed by emotional as well as by physical abuse.

Activity (Revise by Adding a Second Complete Thought), 112113

1. . . . sandwiches, for he is allergic . . .

2. . . . sleep, but the thought . . .

3. . . . bakery, and it has . . .

4. . . . soggy, for rainwater had . . .

5. . . . present, so I offered . . .

Activity (Revise by Adding a Dependent Thought), 114115

Answers may vary.

1. Because I had forgotten to lock the front door, I . . .

2. When the bear turned over the rotten log, fat . . .

3. After Kevin had sent away for a set of tools, he . . .

4. Because some people are allergic to wool, they . . .

5. Even though an older woman in my typing class can type almost one hundred words a minute, she . . .

Activity (Revise by Beginning with a Special Opening Word or Phrase), 116

1. Reluctantly, Shirley signed the repair contract.

2. To improve their chances of promotion, the interns volunteered to work overtime.

3. During the trial, the accused murderer grinned at the witnesses.

4. Crowded with nervous pets, the vets office was noisy and confusing.

5. Trying to find something worth watching, Barry flipped from channel to channel.

Activity (Revise by Placing Adjectives or Verbs in a Series), 117118

Answers may vary.

1. The baby toddled across the rug, picked up a button, and put the button in his mouth.

2. Brown, foul-tasting water dribbled out of the rusty metal tap.

3. By 6 A.M., I had read the textbook chapter, taken notes on it, studied the notes, and drunk eight cups of coffee.

4. The exterminator approached the large, papery wasps nests hanging under the old wooden eaves.

5. Slim brown reeds bordered the stagnant green pond.

Activity (Proofreading), 120121

1. 2 6. 11

2. 4 7. 13

3. 5 8. 14

4. 6 9. 16

5. 9 10. 17

Corrections (methods of correction may vary):

1. an ashtray which I made 6. my father, who smoked

2. the pride I felt when I presented 7. bright purple, my favorite color

3. a shelf; it is a remarkably 8. its rim; they are colored neon green.

4. circle. Unfortunately, 9. love me, I look

5. or cigar, so I made 10. ugly ashtray; the answer

Review Test 1 (Using Parallelism), 122

1. filled with suspense suspenseful 6. selling toys toy salesperson

2. furniture for the office 7. food on the table putting food on the table
office furniture 8. to cram cramming

3. my kitchen working in my kitchen 9. bags are put on them bagged (or:put into bags)

4. preparing to prepare 10. with friendliness as well and his friendliness

5. being kind kindness

Review Test 2 (Using Parallelism), 123

1. to buy buying 6. were whispering whispered

2. shows on science science shows 7. to start starting

3. porch furniture that was rotted 8. pay that is good good pay

rotting porch furniture 9. was putting put

4. her shirt was torn a torn shirt 10. losing lost

5. takingtake (or:climbing . . . taking)

Review Test 1 (Using a Consistent Point of View), 124

1. is was taken 6. gets got the chicken

2. are were not on the same shelf 7. realizes realized it contained

3. proceeds proceeded slowly. 8. transfers transferred the groceries,

4. decides decided to pick up 9. notices noticed that the barbecued chicken

5. parks parked his shopping cart 10. says said to the clerk,

Review Test 2 (Using a Consistent Point of View), 125

1. you they work. 6. one I can meet

2. you I could hear 7. were to you me.

3. you we are supposed 8. you I drive

4. one I must complete 9. you they have turned in

5. you he could not tell 10. and asked to help you her.

Review Test 1 (Using Specific Words), 126

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. . . . I felt sad, angry, and worried.

2. The lukewarm soup, stale sandwiches, and limp salads . . .

3. Ants, moths, and spiders . . .

4. . . . it rained nonstop, with a bone-chilling wind.

5. . . . a broken arm, two broken ribs, and a concussion.

Review Test 2 (Using Specific Words), 127

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. The haughty, scowling salesman told us not to waste his time with stupid questions.

2. Betty dug her fists into her eyes and shook with sobs.

3. The third game of the World Series was a tense pitchers duel.

4. The airport lounge was thronged with holiday travelers.

5. The woman in the front seat was muttering to herself and trembling.

Review Test (Using Active Verbs), 128

1. The health inspector closed the pizza restaurant.

2. The workers in the library sorted huge stacks of donated books.

3. A virus infected my computer.

4. Oil companies will not increase gasoline prices this winter.

5. Our airplanes dropped high-powered bombs onto enemy bases.

6. The telephone company placed an additional charge on our phone bill.

7. A group of vandals damaged the community center.

8. Physical activity, meditation, and relaxation relieve stress.

9. The federal government will raise taxes to pay for highway improvements.

10. Studies show that watching violent TV programs increases violent behavior.

Review Test 1 (Using Concise Words), 129

Answers may vary; examples are shown.

1. I finally decided to look for a new job.

2. Because her printer was out of paper, Renee went to buy some.

3. Tamika realized suddenly that her date had stood her up.

4. Our teacher does not yet know if she will return next year.

5. The salesperson advised us to wait until the price dropped before buying our computer.

Review Test 2 (Using Concise Words), 130

Answers may vary; examples are shown.

1. Our company allows two fifteen-minute coffee breaks.

2. Your line of credit has been increased.

3. I prefer candy to fruit. (Or:I think candy tastes better than fruit.)

4. Lynn rarely admits that she has made a mistake.

5. Many people think that children should, by law, attend school until age sixteen.

Review Test 1 (Varying Your Sentences), 131

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. Sophie had repaired her broken watchband with a paper clip, but the clip snapped and the watch slid off her wrist.

2. The physical therapist watched as Julie tried to stand on her weakened legs and they crumpled under her.

3. Although there were parking spaces on the street, Richie pulled into an expensive garage because he did not want to risk damage to his new car.

4. Speeding, the brown truck skidded on some ice and almost hit a startled young police officer.

5. A sudden terrible rainstorm flooded our basement, knocked slates off the roof, and uprooted a young tree.

Review Test 2 (Varying Your Sentences), 132133

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. When a sudden cold front hit the area, temperatures dropped thirty degrees in less than an hour. I was not wearing a warm jacket, so my teeth began to chatter.

2. Vern works as a model, so he has to look his best. When he gained ten pounds recently, he had to take off the extra weight, or he would have lost his job.

3. As the ball game was about to begin, a dog ran onto the field and began nipping the infielders ankles. The game had to be delayed until the dog was chased away.

4. The hungry lion watched the herd of gazelle closely. If a young or sick animal wandered away from the group, the lion would move in for the kill.

5. Suffering from arthritis, my aunt decided to find a helpful form of exercise. She learned that swimming is very healthful because it works every muscle group in the body without straining the muscles.

Review Test 3 (Varying Your Sentences), 134

Answers will vary; an example is shown.

Lena and Miles wanted a nice, quiet, relaxing vacation, so they rented a small lakeside cabin. Their first day there was very peaceful, but the situation quickly changed when a large family moved into a nearby cabin. They played music at top volume and raced around in a speedboat with a loud whining engine. Lena and Miles, no longer very relaxed, packed up their things, drove off, and returned to their quiet apartment.

6 Four Bases for Revising Essays

Activity (Revising for Unity), 138

The following sentences should be crossed out:

Paragraph 3: We are close now, though. In fact, Eddie recently painted my new apartment for me.

Paragraph 4: Now I realize that teenage drinking is dangerous. I read recently that the number one killer of teenagers is drunk driving.

Activity (Revising for Support), 141

Answers will vary.

Activity (Revising for Coherence), 144

Answers will vary.

Activity (Revising for Sentence Skills), 147148

1. In word group 14, are should be is to make the verb agree with way.

2. In word group 19, quite should be quiet.

3. In word group 22, 5 should be spelled out.

4. In word group 22, began should be changed to the correct form of the verb, begun.

5. In word group 23, there should be quotation marks around Bugs.

6. In word group 23, an exclamation point is needed for an end mark.

7. In word group 24, Dumping the food in the disposalis a dangling modifier. It should be changed to Theyll all dump their food in the disposal, jump into the car, and . . .

8. In word group 24, make a beeline is a cliché. It should be changed to head quickly.

9. In word group 24, mcdonaldsshould be capitalized.

10. Word group 29 is a run-on. It can be corrected thus: . . . simple. Coworkers, . . .

Activity (Revising an Essay for Unity), 148150

Playing on the Browns”—Irrelevant sentences: 15, 24, 28

How to Con an Instructor”—Irrelevant sentences: 11, 19, 24, 33

Activity (Evaluating Essays for Support), 156158

Formula for Happiness”—Supporting details needed after sentences 7, 13, 16, 20, 21

Problems of a Foreign Student”—Supporting details needed after sentences 12, 17, 24

Activity (Revising Essays for Coherence), 152155

Noise Pollution

1. sentence 6 5. sentence 19

2. canned music 6. rubble

3. sentence 12 7. six times

4. sentence 18 8. 4, 2, 3

Weight Loss

1. sentence 8 5. sentence 16

2. sentence 9 6. fat

3. sentence 12 7. four times

4. my best friends family 8. 3

Activity (Revising Essays for All Four Bases), 155158

Chiggers

Paragraph 2: a (I am definitely . . . and concrete.)

Paragraph 3: c

Paragraph 4: d (Mainly . . . summertime.”—fragment; I will . . . red speck.”—run-on)

The Hazards of Being an Only Child

Paragraph 2: a (Some only children . . . writing or drawing.)

Paragraph 3: d (And who . . . morning.”—fragment; After all . . . secrets.”—run-on)

Paragraph 4: b (. . . family decisions, either.)

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